Robert of Geneva

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Robert of Geneva,

d. 1394, Genevan churchman, antipope (1378–94; see Schism, GreatSchism, Great,
or Schism of the West,
division in the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. There was no question of faith or practice involved; the schism was a matter of persons and politics.
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) with the name Clement VII. He was archbishop of Cambrai (1368) and was created (1371) a cardinal. He was subsequently papal legate in Italy, and he put down a rebellion at Cesena with great cruelty. In 1378, on the death of Gregory XIGregory XI,
1330–78, pope (1370–78), a Frenchman named Pierre Roger de Beaufort. He was the successor of Urban V, who had made an unsuccessful attempt to remove the papacy from Avignon to Rome (1367–70).
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, Urban VIUrban VI,
1318?–1389, pope (1378–89), whose election was the immediate cause of the Great Schism; a Neapolitan named Bartolomeo Prignano; successor of Gregory XI. He was made archbishop of Acerenza (1364) and of Bari (1377).
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 was elected, but the cardinals reconsidered and elected Robert instead. He went to Avignon at once, and the Great Schism had begun. He was recognized by France (his protector), Scotland (France's ally), Spain, and Naples. Several German states also recognized him. Portugal twice recognized and twice repudiated him. He was unsuccessful in trying to increase his support. He died just as the ideas that led to the conciliar theory (i.e., that councils, as opposed to the pope, have supreme authority) were being propagated from Paris. His successor at Avignon was Benedict XIII (see Luna, Pedro deLuna, Pedro de
, 1328?–1423?, Aragonese churchman, antipope (1394–1417) with the name Benedict XIII. He was a doctor of canon law and as cardinal (1375) became an outstanding member of the Curia Romana.
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