Aymara


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Aymara

(īmärä`), Native South Americans inhabiting the Lake Titicaca basin in Peru and Bolivia. The originators of the great culture represented by the ruins of TiahuanacoTiahuanaco
, ancient native ruin, W Bolivia, 34 mi (55 km) S of Lake Titicaca on the Tiahuanaco R. in the S central Andes, near the Peruvian border; also called Tiwanaku or Tiahuanacu.
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 were very likely Aymara speakers. Although subjugated by the IncaInca
, pre-Columbian empire, W South America. The name Inca may specifically refer to the emperor, but is generally used to mean the empire or the people. Extent and Organization of the Empire
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 in the 15th cent. after a long struggle, the Aymara continue to dominate the region, with a population of over 2 million in the mid-1990s. The Aymara languages make up a separate unit; they are spoken in Peru and Bolivia in the Titicaca region. The Aymara, conquered (1538) by Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro, retained their pastoral and agricultural culture. In general, social organization was, and still is, based on the patrilineal family unit. Contemporary Aymara and the related Quechua peasant culture is a blend of aboriginal, Spanish colonial, and modern elements.

Bibliography

See H. Osborne, Indians of the Andes, Aymaras and Quechuas (1952); J. Steward, ed., Handbook of South American Indians, Vol. II (1963); H. and J.-M. Buechler, The Bolivian Aymara (1971); A. L. Kolata, Valley of the Spirits (1996).

Aymara

 

an Indian tribe of South America. The majority of the Aymara live around Lake Titicaca and on the Bolivian altiplano in the southern section of the department of Puno (in Peru) and in the departments of La Paz and Oruro (in Bolivia). The Aymara language is spoken by about 1.3 million people (1964). The ancestors of the Aymara were the innovators of the Tiahuanaco culture. After the Spanish Conquest (16th century) the Aymara, despite severe oppression and discrimination, preserved their language and, to a considerable degree, their culture. The traditional structure of the community headed by an elder was retained in a number of areas. Their religion is Catholicism, although there are considerable vestiges of pre-Christian religious beliefs.

REFERENCE

Narody Ameriki, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.

E. V. ZIBERT

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aymara prefers flat, nonagricultural areas for much of the year and "Polylepis shrub or rocky terrain" for nesting.
The Aymara language is one of the most common, along with Quechua and Guarani.
The feast of Pentecost brought the Aymara people to my mind.
His proposal has led to much talk in recent years of the "buen vivir" or "vivir bienf with its linguistic counterparts "suma qamana" in Aymara and "sumaj kausay" in Quechua.
Quechua, Aymara and Puquina appear to have been the principal languages at play in the processes of cultural transformation and linguistic evolution and dispersals in the central and southern Andes over the period from the Middle Horizon through to the rise of the Inkas in the Late Horizon period (see Heggarty & Beresford-Jones 2012).
Aymara Indian perspectives on development in the Andes.
Cet ouvrage, de pres d'une centaine de pages, s'articule autour de plusieurs axes thematiques, notamment la situation geographique des populations originaires du Chili, l'avenir de ces populations, la figure du Conquistador, les metisses, la cosmovision Aymara, la communaute andine, et los Mapuches ou le peuple de la terre.
The Aymara native, who resides in a straw-roofed dirt-floor hut in an isolated hamlet near Lake Titicaca, is illiterate, speaks no Spanish and has no teeth.
Aymara Indian Carmelo Flores (R) and his son Cecilio joke during a Reuters TV interview in his hometown of Frasquia, 110km (68 miles) north of La Paz, on August 16.
And the Aymara Indian was happy to share his secret to a lasting life: eating skunk and fox meat, avoiding sugar or pasta and taking long walks.
An Aymara cattle and sheep herder was believed to be the oldest person ever to have lived, after reaching the age of 123.
Am y tro cynta' mae'r ieithoedd bach yn cael eu dysgu yn yr ysgolion a'r iaith Aymara a'r lleill i'w gweld yn glir mewn lleoedd fel meysydd awyr.