vertigo

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vertigo

(vûr`tĭgō), sensations of moving in space or of objects moving about a person and the resultant difficulty in maintaining equilibrium. True vertigo, as distinguished from faintness, lightheadedness, and other forms of dizziness, occurs as a result of a disturbance of some part of the body's balancing mechanism, located in the inner ear (e.g., vestibule, semicircular canals, auditory nerves). Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common kind, is the result of the displacement some of the calcium carbonate crystals (otoconia) from a fluid-filled cavity (the utricle) in the labyrinth of the ear into the semicircular canals, where they interfere with normal fluid movement. In many cases, BPPV may be treated by maneuvers designed to reposition the crystals that are easily done by a health-care provider. Labyrinthitis, or infection and irritation of the middle and inner ear, also is a common cause of vertigo, as is Ménière's diseaseMénière's disease
, disorder of the inner ear characterized by recurrent vertigo combined with hearing loss and tinnitus (a ringing sensation). It was first described by the French otologist Prosper Ménière, in 1861.
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. Correction or elimination of the mechanical, infectious, toxic, or environmental factors underlying the disturbance is essential for permanent relief.

Vertigo

 

a sensation of disturbance of body balance and seeming rotation of surrounding objects. In the ontogeny of a human being a certain definite conception of the individual’s interrelationship with surrounding objects (space) is formed; the principal role in this is played by the information that enters the central nervous system from the vestibular apparatus, the organs of sight, and nerve endings that receive deep and cutaneous responses. When there is a disturbance in the transmission or perception of this information, vertigo occurs. Vertigo may sometimes arise in healthy persons, for example when there is extreme or prolonged stimulation of the vestibular apparatus (movement with considerable linear or angular acceleration, swinging, etc.), as a result of intensive rhythmic stimulation of the receptors of the eyeballs (prolonged fixation of the gaze on a moving object), or with absence in surrounding space of accustomed points that determine space orientation (at high altitudes).

Vertigo often arises in certain diseased conditions, such as diseases of the vestibular analysor (labyrinth, audio-vestibular nerve, vestibular nuclei of the brain stem, supranuclear structures, cortex, and, above all, areas of the temporal-parietooccipital junction) and of the visual and oculomotor apparatus, as well as in pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system, and other organs. The causes of affection of the vestibular analysor may be inflammatory or noninflammatory diseases of the labyrinth; otosclerosis; Ménière’s disease; infectious, toxic, or traumatic influences on the audio-vestibular nerve; disturbances in circulation of cerebrospinal fluid; vascular, inflammatory, toxic, oncological, and parasitic brain diseases; and, more rarely, functional diseases of the nervous system. Vertigo is usually accompanied by nausea, vomiting, slow pulse, pallor, change in arterial pressure, and the appearance of nystagmus. Treatment consists of removal of the causes; acetyl-cholinolytic preparations, vitamin B6, and therapeutic exercises are prescribed.

REFERENCES

Min’kovskii, A. Kh. “Golovokruzhenie.” In Problemy labirintologii. Cheliabinsk, 1966.
Khechinashvili, S. N. “Golovokruzhenie.” Klinicheskaia meditsina, 1964, vol. 42, no. 9.
Piquet, J., and J. J. Piquet. Les Vertiges. Paris, 1965.

V. A. KARLOV

vertigo

[′vərd·ə‚gō]
(medicine)
The sensation that the outer world is revolving about the patient (objective vertigo) or that the patient is moving in space (subjective vertigo).

vertigo

A type of spatial disorientation caused by the physical senses sending conflicting signals to the brain. The eyes send the signal that the aircraft is in a certain attitude, while the inner ear indicates a different attitude—hence, the confusion. The situation can be dangerous when flying in clouds, at night, and in poor visibility conditions. The defense lies in concentration on and confidence in flight instruments.

vertigo

Pathol a sensation of dizziness or abnormal motion resulting from a disorder of the sense of balance
References in periodicals archive ?
Vestibular neuritis is the second most common cause of peripheral vertigo after BPPV.
You need to be able to perform a Dix Hallpike manoeuvre, as this is used to diagnose BPPV.
The primary diagnosis on Day One of BPPV prompted using the canalith repositioning manoeuvre (CRM) described by Epley (1992) to reposition the otoconia suspected to be present in the right posterior semi-circular canal (refer to Figures 1A-1E).
Therefore, it is theorised that in order to obtain a lasting clinical effect, it is important to identify and correct peripheral vestibular dysfunction, in particular BPPV, before initiating treatment to the cervical spine.
Depending on diagnostic test results, treatment options can include canalith repositioning therapy for treatment of BPPV, vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) for patients with balance and/or horizontal semicircular canal dysfunction, physical therapy, change in activity levels, medication, change in diet, treatment for any underlying disease that may be contributing to the balance disorder (such as eye glasses, infection, etc.
It is used as a guide to the Epley maneuvers (particle repositioning maneuvers) that treat the most common cause of vertigo, BPPV.
Anatomic variations may include the distortion of the membranous labyrinth in Meniere disease, an enlarged vestibular aqueduct, and even dislodged otoliths; in the latter case, the fluid dynamics model complements current theories of BPPV.
Most cases of BPPV involve the posterior semicircular canal, but other canals can be involved, as well.
2) BPPV is a vestibular disorder that affects the semicircular canals of the labyrinth.
The main diagnostic criteria of BPPV are the presence of a nystagmus associated with some degree of vertigo that is elicited by position changes of the head.
Vestibular habituation exercises are an effective treatment for most patients with typical BPPV.
In most patients, BPPV initially manifests in the fourth to seventh decade of life, and the condition has a slight predisposition to women.