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Elizabeth,1837–98, empress of Austria and queen of Hungary. A Bavarian princess, she was married (1854) to her cousin, Emperor Francis Joseph. Despite her exceptional beauty, intelligence, and kindness she led an unhappy domestic life, which was marred, moreover, by family tragedies (notably the death of her only son, Archduke RudolfRudolf,
1858–89, Austrian archduke, crown prince of Austria and Hungary; only son of Emperor Francis Joseph and Empress Elizabeth. Upon his mysterious death at Mayerling near Vienna (officially declared a double suicide with his mistress, Baroness Maria Vetsera), his
..... Click the link for more information. , and the death of one of her sisters in the charity bazaar fire in Paris, 1897). Independent and unconventional, she avoided the stiff etiquette of the Viennese court and spent much of her time abroad, chiefly on Corfu. She was assassinated by the Italian anarchist Luccheni in Geneva, Switzerland.
See biography J. Haslip (1965).
Elizabeth,1709–62, czarina of Russia (1741–62), daughter of Peter IPeter I
or Peter the Great,
1672–1725, czar of Russia (1682–1725), major figure in the development of imperial Russia. Early Life
Peter was the youngest child of Czar Alexis, by Alexis's second wife, Natalya Naryshkin.
..... Click the link for more information. and Catherine ICatherine I,
1683?–1727, czarina of Russia (1725–27). Of Livonian peasant origin, Martha Skavronskaya was a domestic when she was captured (1702) by Russian soldiers. As mistress of Aleksandr D.
..... Click the link for more information. . She gained the throne by overthrowing the young czar, Ivan VIIvan VI,
1740–64, czar of Russia (1740–41), great-grandson of Ivan V. He was the son of Prince Anthony Ulric of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and of Anna Leopoldovna.
..... Click the link for more information. , and the regency of his mother, Anna Leopoldovna. Her coup was made possible by her popularity with the imperial guards, who hated the German favorites of Anna Leopoldovna. Elizabeth herself, armed, led the bloodless revolution. Guided in her foreign policy by her chancellor, A. P. Bestuzhev-RyuminBestuzhev-Ryumin, Aleksey Petrovich, Count
, 1693–1766, Russian statesman. With the accession (1741) of Czarina Elizabeth, he was appointed vice chancellor and (1744) grand chancellor.
..... Click the link for more information. , Elizabeth sought to rid Russia of German influence. She victoriously sided against Frederick II of Prussia in the Seven Years WarSeven Years War,
1756–63, worldwide war fought in Europe, North America, and India between France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and (after 1762) Spain on the one side and Prussia, Great Britain, and Hanover on the other.
..... Click the link for more information. , but her death and the accession of her nephew, Peter III, took Russia out of the war and made Frederick's ultimate victory possible. During her reign the nobles acquired more power over their serfs and gained a dominant position in local government, while the terms of service they owed the state were shortened. The Moscow Univ. (now Moscow State Univ.) and the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg were founded during her reign.
Elizabeth,1596–1662, queen of Bohemia, daughter of James I of England. Her beauty attracted most of the royal suitors of Europe (she was nicknamed the "Queen of Hearts"), but she was married (1613) to Frederick V, elector palatine (see Frederick the Winter KingFrederick the Winter King,
1596–1632, king of Bohemia (1619–20), elector palatine (1610–20) as Frederick V. The Protestant diet of Bohemia deposed the Roman Catholic King Ferdinand (Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II) and chose Frederick as king.
..... Click the link for more information. ) in order to cement an alliance between English and German Protestantism. She became queen of Bohemia in 1619, when her husband accepted the crown offered by the Bohemian diet. After Frederick was defeated (1620) in the battle of the White Mt., Elizabeth took up her residence in Holland, where she courageously endured privation and misfortune. She received little support from abroad, even from her son Charles Louis, who was restored to the Palatinate in 1648. In 1661 she returned to England against the wishes of King Charles II, who, however, pensioned her. Among her children were Prince RupertRupert, Prince,
1619–82, count palatine of the Rhine. Born in Prague, he was the son of Frederick the Winter King, elector palatine and king of Bohemia, and Elizabeth, daughter of James I of England. Rupert grew up in the Netherlands and studied at Leiden.
..... Click the link for more information. ; Princess Elizabeth, who was the patroness of Descartes; and SophiaSophia
, 1630–1714, electress of Hanover, consort of Elector Ernest Augustus. She was the daughter of Frederick the Winter King and Elizabeth of Bohemia, who was the daughter of James I of England.
..... Click the link for more information. , who was electress of Hanover and mother of George I of England.
Elizabeth,1843–1916, queen of Romania, consort of King Carol ICarol I,
1839–1914, prince (1866–81) and first king (1881–1914) of Romania, of the house of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. He is also called Charles I. A Prussian officer, he was elected to succeed the deposed Alexander John Cuza as prince of Romania.
..... Click the link for more information. , whom she married in 1869. Of German birth, she was the daughter of Hermann, prince of Wied. She completely identified herself with her adopted people and devoted herself to their cultural development. Under the pseudonym Carmen Sylva the queen wrote extensively and with almost equal facility in German, French, English, and Romanian. She collaborated on several books with her lady-in-waiting, Mite Kremnitz.
Elizabeth,1900–2002, queen consort of George VIGeorge VI
(Albert Frederick Arthur George), 1895–1952, king of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1936–52), second son of George V; successor of his elder brother, Edward VIII. He attended the royal naval colleges at Osborne and Dartmouth and served in World War I.
..... Click the link for more information. of Great Britain, mother of Elizabeth IIElizabeth II,
1926–, queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1952–), elder daughter and successor of George VI, and Britain's longest reigning monarch. At age 18 she was made a State Counsellor, a confidante of the king.
..... Click the link for more information. and Princess MargaretMargaret,
1930–2002, British princess, second daughter of King George VI and sister of Queen Elizabeth II, b. Glamis, Scotland. In 1960 she married a commoner, the photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones, who was created earl of Snowdon in 1961. They were divorced in 1978.
..... Click the link for more information. , b. London. She was Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon until her marriage (1923). During the Blitz in World War II, she and the king remained in London, becoming symbols of courage to the British people. Elizabeth assumed the title Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, when her daughter was crowned. An active public figure, affectionately called the "Queen Mum," she was chancellor of the Univ. of London (1955–80) and one of the most enduringly popular members of the royal family.
See biography by W. Shawcross (2009).
Elizabeth,1764–94, sister of King Louis XVI of France, known as Madame Elizabeth. Deeply loyal to her brother, she remained in France during the French Revolution, suffered imprisonment, and was guillotined.
Elizabeth:see Russell, Mary AnnetteRussell, Mary Annette (Beauchamp) Russell, Countess,
1866–1941, English novelist, b. Sydney, Australia; cousin of Katherine Mansfield. In 1890 she married Count Henning von Arnim and went to live in Germany.
..... Click the link for more information. .
Elizabeth,city (1990 pop. 110,002), seat of Union co., NE N.J., on Newark Bay; inc. 1855. It is a shipping and transportation hub, with some of the world's largest containerized dock facilities at Port Elizabeth. Since 1985 the harbor, as part of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, has seen a steady increase in the volume of containerized exports. Highly industrialized, Elizabeth makes furnaces, plastics, chemicals, metal and food products, tea, paperboard boxes, and pharmaceuticals. A campus of Union College is in the city. The Goethals Bridge (1928) links Elizabeth with Staten Island, N.Y., and Newark International Airport is nearby. Since the 1980s the Jersey Gardens Mall and other developments have made Elizabeth a retailing center.
The area was purchased (1664) from the Delaware and called Elizabethtown. From 1668 to 1682, Elizabeth borough served as the meeting place of the New Jersey assembly. Chartered as the town of Elizabeth in 1740, it was the scene of several Revolutionary clashes; many buildings were burned (1780). Among surviving older buildings are the 18th-century Elias Boudinot House and the 17th-century Nathaniel Bonnell House. Early industries were tanning and brewing. In the 19th cent., Elizabeth's proximity to New York City and the coming of the railroad stimulated great industrial expansion, especially in shipbuilding, machine production, and oil refining. Alexander HamiltonHamilton, Alexander,
1755–1804, American statesman, b. Nevis, in the West Indies. Early Career
He was the illegitimate son of James Hamilton (of a prominent Scottish family) and Rachel Faucett Lavien (daughter of a doctor-planter on Nevis and the estranged
..... Click the link for more information. and Aaron BurrBurr, Aaron,
1756–1836, American political leader, b. Newark, N.J., grad. College of New Jersey (now Princeton). Political Career
A brilliant law student, Burr interrupted his study to serve in the American Revolution and proved himself a valiant soldier in
..... Click the link for more information. lived at times in Elizabeth.
a city in the northeastern USA, in the state of New Jersey; a western suburb of New York. Population, 106,000 (1975). The city is a port on Newark Bay, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean. Elizabeth’s industries include the production of chemicals, oil refining, food processing, clothing manufacture, metalworking, and printing. Sewing machines, toys, and radioelectronics equipment are manufactured. The city was founded in 1664.
a city in southern Australia, in the state of South Australia. Population, 31,000 (1965). Elizabeth, a satellite city of Adelaide, has plants specializing in automotive assembly, the manufacture of automobile parts and synthetic rubber, and the production of electrical and radio engineering equipment.