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any of the large, powerful, ground-living monkeysmonkey,
any of a large and varied group of mammals of the primate order. The term monkey includes all primates that do not belong to the categories human, ape, or prosimian; however, monkeys do have certain common features.
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 of the genus Papio, also called dog-faced monkeys. Five subspecies live in Africa, with one species extending into the Arabian peninsula. They have close-set eyes under heavy brow ridges, long, heavy muzzles, powerful jaws, and long, sharp upper canine teeth. Their fur is thick, and in some species males have a mane about the head and shoulders. The heavy tail is of moderate length. The buttock pads, or ischial callosities, are thick and brightly colored; sitting is the favored position for feeding and sleeping. Baboons live in brush, grassland, or rocky country, foraging on the ground for roots, seeds, fruits, insects, and small animals, including other monkeys. Depending on the species, they may gather in troops of 350 individuals or more for protection at sleep sites on rock outcroppings. Baboons are powerful fighters and show little fear of larger animals, including humans. They can successfully take on leopards, their worst enemies. Most species travel in groups of 40 to 80, which are socially based on a core of females and may include several transient males. Some subspecies, like the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas hamadryas), form harem groups led by a dominant male and have a highly developed social order. Baboons are subtle, intelligent animals and can become dangerous nuisances if they learn to raid fields or houses for easy food. The gelada (Theropithecus gelada) of Ethiopia is closely related to the baboon. It has a bright pink face and buttock pads and a tufted tail. Males use characteristic facial movements and barks to control harems of females during daily foraging. Also closely related are the wildly colorful mandrillmandrill,
large monkey, Mandrillus sphinx, of central W Africa, related to the baboons. Mandrills are found in forests, while baboons live in open country. The fur of the mandrill is mostly dark brown, but the bare areas—face and buttocks—are patterned in
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 and the plainer drill, both forest-dwellers, and the mangabeys. Baboons are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Primates, family Cercopithecidae.


See S. C. Strum, Almost Human (1987).


(vertebrate zoology)
Any of five species of large African and Asian terrestrial primates of the genus Papio, distinguished by a doglike muzzle, a short tail, and naked callosities on the buttocks.


any of several medium-sized omnivorous Old World monkeys of the genus Papio (or Chaeropithecus) and related genera, inhabiting open rocky ground or wooded regions of Africa. They have an elongated muzzle, large teeth, and a fairly long tail
References in periodicals archive ?
Eveline de Wolf, Head of Animal Management at the Park, said: "Usually, a baboon has one baby at a time.
Visitors can see the baboons from an indoor shelter or soar above them on the zoo's one-of-a-kind vintage chair lift.
e ranger eventually manage to chase the baboons o after threatening them with a gun.
It is easy to understand the baboons are looking for food but they are intelligent and very social animals.
All 4 baboons positive for the HPIV3 genome were negative for HPIV3 antibodies (data not shown), suggesting that, at the time the samples were taken, these HPIV3 antibody-negative baboons might have been in the acute stage of infection, before a detectable immune response had developed.
The baboons received all the peanuts in the cup they chose, whether it was the cup with the most goodies or not.
But every warden always keeps an eye on the baboons.
Baboons raid her home from time to time in search of water.
In this essay, I connect early modern cultural ideas about baboons with some of the valences of their performance history, arguing that both suggest early modern London's stage baboons may have been more culturally relevant than we think.
Psychologist Jonathan Grainger of the University of Aix-Marseille in France reported earlier this year that baboons can learn to tell real four-letter words from nonsense words (SN: 5/5/12, p.