aspirin

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aspirin,

acetyl derivative of salicylic acid (see salicylatesalicylate
, any of a group of analgesics, or painkilling drugs, that are derivatives of salicylic acid. The best known is acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin. Now often made synthetically, they were originally derived from salicin,
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) that is used to lower fever, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and thin the blood. Common conditions treated with aspirin include headache, muscle and joint pain, and the inflammation caused by rheumatic fever and arthritis. Aspirin is believed to act against fever, pain, and inflammation by interfering with the synthesis of specific prostaglandinsprostaglandin
, any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as in lower animals. Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every body tissue.
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 in the body. Because of its ability to inhibit the formation of blood clots, aspirin is also used in low doses to prevent heart attack and stroke in persons with cardiovascular disease and to control unstable angina. The drug's usefulness in preventing certain cancers, the dangerous high blood pressure that sometimes occurs during pregnancy (toxemia), and migraine headaches is also under investigation.

Normal dosage may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Large doses cause acid-base imbalance and respiratory disturbances and can be fatal, especially in children. Aspirin also has been linked to the development of Reye's syndrome (a combination of acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of internal organs) in children who have taken it for viral infections. Acetaminophenacetaminophen
, an analgesic and fever-reducing medicine. It is an active ingredient in many over-the-counter medicines, including Tylenol and Midol. Introduced in the early 1900s, acetaminophen is a coal tar derivative that acts by interfering with the synthesis of
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 (Tylenol), which does not cause gastric irritation but does lower fever and relieve pain, is often substituted for aspirin.

Aspirin, although usually made synthetically now, was originally derived from salicin, the active ingredient in willow bark. Willow bark had been used for centuries in folk medicine in certain parts of the world. Acetylsalicylic acid was first prepared by the German chemist Felix Hoffmann, an employee of Friedrich Bayer & Co., in 1897. It is now the active ingredient in many over-the-counter preparations; estimates put American consumption at 80 billion tablets annually.

See analgesicanalgesic
, any of a diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. Analgesic drugs include the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, acetaminophen, narcotic drugs such as morphine, and synthetic drugs with morphinelike action such as meperidine
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.

aspirin

[′as·prən]
(organic chemistry)

aspirin

1. a white crystalline compound widely used in the form of tablets to relieve pain and fever, to reduce inflammation, and to prevent strokes. Formula: CH3COOC6H4COOH
2. a tablet of aspirin

Aspirin

(language, tool)
A freeware language from MITRE Corporation for the description of neural networks. A compiler, bpmake, is included. Aspirin is designed for use with the MIGRAINES interface.

Version: 6.0, as of 1995-03-08.

ftp://ftp.cognet.ucla.edu/alexis/.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is a short, outpatient procedure performed through an incision the size of a baby aspirin that requires no general anesthesia, no implants and no stitches.
The standard baby aspirin may not be adequate for subjects with diabetes for cardiovascular protection," she stated.
Q: What is the latest information about taking daffy baby aspirin to help the heart?
Low-dose tablets, once called baby aspirin, contain only 81 mg of aspirin, so people who take those pills for heart health should continue to do so, Schernhammer says.
Researchers at Dartmounth-Hitchcock Medical Center looked at 1,084 patients with a recent history of colon polyps, and found that the recurrence of polyps--the likelihood of which is increased in people who have previously had them--was reduced by 19% in patients who took a baby aspirin daily.
Patients who took 81 milligrams daily - the equivalent of one baby aspirin - reduced their risk of colon and rectal polyps by 19 percent.
Patients with RA who have had a first MI should be encouraged to take a baby aspirin in accordance with the American College of Cardiology practice guidelines, but no data support taking aspirin to prevent an initial MI, added Dr.
Helen wasn't taking Coumadin or any other blood thinning medications, but she did take a baby aspirin every morning.
The current recommendation is one baby aspirin (81 mg) daily, or one adult aspirin (325 mg) every other day.
In other studies, heart disease patients lowered their risk by taking the equivalent of a baby aspirin (80 mg) every day.
The sensor is a tiny silicon chip about the size of a baby aspirin with one hundred electrodes, each thinner than a human hair, that can detect the electrical activity of neurons.
mild alleviates the compression by restoring space in the spinal canal with precision instruments through an incision the size of a baby aspirin.