Stuttgart

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Stuttgart

(shto͝ot`gärt), city (1994 pop. 594,406), capital of Baden-WürttembergBaden-Württemberg
, state (1994 pop. 10,000,000), 13,803 sq mi (35,750 sq km), SW Germany. Stuttgart is the capital. It was formed in 1952 by the merger of Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, and postwar Baden, all of which came into being after 1945.
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, SW Germany, on the Neckar River. It is a major transportation point, with a large river port and an international airport, and a sizable industrial center. Manufactures include electrical and photographic equipment, machinery, optical and precision instruments, textiles, clothing, chemicals, beverages (including wine and beer), pianos, and motor vehicles and vehicle engines. It is also a tourist center and the site of industrial fairs. Its per capita income is the highest of any German city.

Stuttgart was chartered in the 13th cent. In 1320 it became a residence of the counts (later dukes, from 1806 kings) of WürttembergWürttemberg
, former state, SW Germany. Württemberg was formerly also spelled Würtemberg and Wirtemberg. The former state bordered on Baden in the northwest, west, and southwest, on Hohenzollern and Switzerland (from which it was separated by Lake Constance) in
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, who made it their capital at the end of the 15th cent. The city expanded rapidly in the 19th and 20th cent. as its industrial plant grew; it became an important center of the German automotive industry. After World War I it became famous for the innovative architecture of its numerous modern buildings. Noteworthy are the housing developments in the outer residential districts, where contemporary theories of home building were applied on a large scale. The center of the city, which formed its oldest part, was almost totally destroyed in World War II.

After 1945 many old buildings were restored, and striking modern structures (such as the city hall and the concert hall) were erected. Other points of interest in the city include the Stiftskirche, a 12th-century church (redone in the 15th cent.); the rococo Solitude Palace (1763–67); the New Palace (1746–1807; now an administrative center); Rosenstein Palace (1824–29; now housing a museum of natural history); and the main railroad station (1914–27). The city has several other museums (including Mercedes-Benz and Porsche museums), a university, and an academy of fine arts. Friedrich von SchillerSchiller, Friedrich von,
1759–1805, German dramatist, poet, and historian, one of the greatest of German literary figures, b. Marbach, Württemberg. The poets of German romanticism were strongly influenced by Schiller, and he ranks as one of the founders of modern
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 studied medicine in Stuttgart from 1773 to 1780.


Stuttgart

(stŭt`gärt, –gərt), city (1990 pop. 10,420), a seat of Arkansas co., E central Ark.; inc. 1889. It is a trade and processing center of a rice-growing area. Machinery and food are produced in the city. Peckerwood Lake Reservoir and Bayou Meto Wildlife Management Area are nearby.

Stuttgart

 

a city in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), on the Neckar River. Capital of the Land (state) of Ba-den-Württemberg. Population, 600,400 (1976).

Stuttgart, an important financial and cultural center of the FRG, forms the nucleus of an industrial conurbation (area, 1,500 sq km; population, approximately 1.5 million) that accounts for about one-third of the industrial output of Baden-Württemberg. The city is an important transportation hub: the railroad system handles 12 million tons of freight annually, and the river port, 1.0 million tons (1974).

The city’s machine-building industry produces motor vehicles, primarily at the Daimler-Benz and Porsche plants. The electrical engineering industry is represented by the Robert Bosch and Standard Electric Lorenz plants; the precision engineering and optical industry is represented by the Kodak and Zeiss-Ikon firms. The city produces armaments and military gear and has enterprises of the publishing, food-processing, textile, garment, leather, and footwear industries. Stuttgart lies on the Mann-heim-Karlsruhe-Stuttgart-Göppingen-Aalen petroleum pipeline.

I. A. BASOVA

At the center of Stuttgart lies the Old Town, to the north of which is the Reiche Vorstadt (second half of the 15th century), which is laid out on a grid pattern. Heavily damaged during World War II, the city underwent extensive reconstruction from the 1950’s to 1970’s. Notable buildings include the Romanesque and Gothic Stiftskirche (collegiate church; 12th and 15th centuries), the Gothic St. Leonard’s Church (1463–66, architect A. Jörg), the Old City Hall (1456–58), the Renaissance Old Palace (begun 1553, architect A. Tretsch), and the baroque New Palace (1744–60, architects L. Retti and P. de la Guêpière).

Important examples of modern architecture include the Weis-senhof Housing Estate (1927, architects Le Corbusier and L. Mies van der Rohe), the television tower (1954–55, architect F. Leonhardt), and the high-rise apartment buildings “Romeo and Juliet” (1957–59, architects H. Scharoun and W. Frank).

The Württemberg Landesmuseum, of the National Collections of Art, houses primarily primitive, medieval, and folk art. The State Art Gallery of Stuttgart has holdings mainly of German art, from the Middle Ages to the 20th century.

REFERENCE

Hoffmann, G. Architekturführer: Stuttgart und Umgebung. Stuttgart, 1971.

Stuttgart

an industrial city in W Germany, capital of Baden-Württemberg state, on the River Neckar: developed around a stud farm (Stuotgarten) of the Counts of Württemberg. Pop.: 589 161 (2003 est.)
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