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Baden, town, Switzerland


anc. Aquae Helveticae, town (1990 pop. 15,718), Aargau canton, N Switzerland, on the Limmat River. A noted spa since ancient times, the town has hot sulfur springs. It is also a manufacturing center known for electrical-engineering works and other factories. The Swiss diet met at Baden from c.1425 to 1712. The Treaty of Baden (1714) complemented the Peace of Utrecht (see Utrecht, Peace ofUtrecht, Peace of,
series of treaties that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession. It put an end to French expansion and signaled the rise of the British Empire. By the treaty between England and France (Apr.
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). Baden was the capital (1798–1803) of Baden canton under the Helvetic RepublicHelvetic Republic
, 1798–1803, Swiss state established under French auspices. In Sept., 1797, several exiled Swiss leaders in France (notably Frédéric César de La Harpe) formally urged the French Revolutionary government (the Directory) to help in
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. The castle of Stein, now in ruins, was once a Hapsburg residence.

Baden, city, Austria


(bä`dən) or


(–bī-vēn`), city (1991 pop. 23,176), Lower Austria province, E Austria, on the Schwechat River, near Vienna. The hot sulfur springs of this picturesque city have been frequented since Roman times. From 1945 to 1955, Baden served as the Soviet military headquarters for Austria.

Baden, former state, Germany


(bä`dən), former state, SW Germany. KarlsruheKarlsruhe
, city (1994 pop. 278,000), Baden-Württemberg, SW Germany, on the northern fringes of the Black Forest, connected by canal with a port on the nearby Rhine River.
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 was the capital. Stretching from the Main River in the northeast across the lower Neckar valley and along the right bank of the Rhine to Lake Constance (Bodensee), the former state of Baden bordered on France and the Rhenish Palatinate in the west, Switzerland in the south, Hesse in the north, and Bavaria and Württemberg in the east. It included the cities of Mannheim, Pforzheim, Heidelberg, Baden-Baden, Freiburg, and Rastatt and, in the south, most of the Black Forest. Until the French Revolution the area was a confusing jigsaw puzzle of petty margraviates and ecclesiastical states (the bishoprics of Mainz, Speyer, Strasbourg, and Konstanz). The BreisgauBreisgau
, region, Baden-Württemburg, SW Germany, including the Rhine plain and the western slopes of the Black Forest. Freiburg is the chief city. After the extinction (1218) of the first house of Zähringen, it was divided among various heirs.
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 belonged to the Hapsburgs, the Mannheim-Heidelberg area to the Rhenish PalatinatePalatinate
, Ger. Pfalz, two regions of Germany. They are related historically, but not geographically. The

Rhenish or Lower Palatinate (Ger.
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. In 1771 the margraviates of Baden-Baden and Baden-Durlach were united as Baden under the same branch of the house of ZähringenZähringen
, noble German family. It took its name from a now ruined castle near Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden, and can be traced to the 10th cent. The family held extensive fiefs in Baden and W Switzerland, and Duke Berthold V, one of the most powerful nobles of his era,
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. Margrave Charles Frederick of Baden, raised to the rank of elector at the beginning of the 19th cent., joined the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806 with the title of grand duke and by 1810 had acquired, with the aid of Napoleon I of France, the entire state of Baden. Despite the liberal constitution of 1818 the grand duchy was severely shaken by the Revolution of 1848, which was suppressed with the help of Prussian troops. Among the revolutionary leaders in Baden was Friedrich Hecker. Baden sided with Austria in the Austro-Prussian War (1866), but joined the German Empire in 1871. It became a republic in 1918 and joined the Weimar Republic. After World War II, Baden was divided into two parts—in the south, the state of Baden (3,842 sq mi/9,951 sq km), occupied by France, and in the north, the state of Württemberg-Baden (1,984 sq mi/5,139 sq km), including part of Württemberg, occupied by U.S. armed forces. In 1952 the two states were merged with Württemberg-Hohenzollern to form the new state of Baden-WürttembergBaden-Württemberg
, state (1994 pop. 10,000,000), 13,803 sq mi (35,750 sq km), SW Germany. Stuttgart is the capital. It was formed in 1952 by the merger of Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, and postwar Baden, all of which came into being after 1945.
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a historical region in southwestern Germany.

Beginning in the 11th century, Baden was a margravate. The residence of the margrave was in the city of Baden-Baden. In 1535, Baden was divided into Baden-Baden (Catholic) and Baden-Durlac (Protestant after 1556). In 1771 both margravates were united under Karl Friedrich (1738–1811). Karlsruhe was the margrave’s residence. In 1796, Karl Friedrich formed an alliance with the French. Baden received the title of an electorate in 1803. In 1806, Baden, whose territory had increased considerably as a result of Napoleon I’s protection, became a grand duchy. During the revolution of 1848–49 in Germany, an uprising began in Baden (April 1848) under the leadership of the petit bourgeois democrats F. Hecker and G. Struve, but it was suppressed by government troops. A second uprising led by Struve (September 1848) was unsuccessful, as was the Baden-Palatinate uprising of 1849 in defense of the imperial constitution. In 1871, Baden became part of the German Empire. During the November Revolution of 1918 in Germany a republic was proclaimed in Baden. From 1919 to 1933, Baden was a state in the Weimar Republic. After the defeat of fascist Germany (1945), the southern part of Baden was included in the French occupation zone; the northern part was in the American occupation zone. Since 1949, Baden has been part of the state (Land) of Baden-Wiirttemberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.


a former state of West Germany, now part of Baden-Württemberg