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Bailén(bīlān`), city, Jaén prov., S Spain, in Andalusia. In 1808, early in the Peninsular War, a French army was surrounded and forced to surrender near Bailén by the Spanish under Castaños, who was made duke of Bailén.
a city in southern Spain. During the war of national liberation of the Spanish people (1808–1814), a battle took place near Bailén in July 1808 between Spanish and French troops. The battle began in Andújar (near Bailén) on July 16. On July 22 the French were forced to sign an act of surrender. The rout of the French near Bailén helped to strengthen the liberation struggle of the Spanish.