Baliol, John de

Baliol, John de,

1249–1315, king of Scotland (1292–96), son of John de BaliolBaliol, John de,
d. 1269, nobleman with lands in both England and Scotland; founder of Balliol College, Oxford. The name is also spelled Balliol. In 1249 he became a member of the Scottish council of regency and a guardian of Alexander III.
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 (d. 1269). He became head of the family after the death of his elder brothers in 1278. At the death of Margaret Maid of NorwayMargaret Maid of Norway,
1283–90, queen of Scotland (1286–90), daughter of Eric II of Norway and granddaughter of Alexander III of Scotland. In 1284 the nobles of Scotland recognized the infant Norwegian princess as heiress presumptive to the Scottish throne, and on
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 (1290), he claimed the Scottish throne through his grandmother, eldest daughter of David of Huntingdon, brother of King William the Lion. His principal rival was Robert the Bruce, of the celebrated BruceBruce,
Scottish royal family descended from an 11th-century Norman duke, Robert de Brus. He aided William I in his conquest of England (1066) and was given lands in England. His son was granted fiefs in Scotland, and the family therefore rendered homage in both kingdoms.
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 family, son of David of Huntingdon's second daughter and hence one generation closer to his royal ancestor, although through a younger line. The laws of succession not being firmly established, the question was referred to Edward IEdward I,
1239–1307, king of England (1272–1307), son of and successor to Henry III. Early Life

By his marriage (1254) to Eleanor of Castile Edward gained new claims in France and strengthened the English rights to Gascony.
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 of England, who first demanded and secured (1291) recognition as feudal overlord of Scotland. Edward decided in favor of Baliol, who was then crowned king (1292) and did homage to Edward for the kingdom. Baliol, after some hesitation, accepted Edward's asserted right to hear appeals from Scottish courts. However, when he attended Edward's Parliament at Westminster in late 1293, he refused to answer such an appeal. The Scottish council subsequently disregarded Edward's summons for help against France and formed (1295) an alliance with Philip IV of France. Early in 1296 the Scots invaded England, and as Edward marched north to take Berwick, Baliol renounced his oath of fealty to the English king. However, after defeat in a brief campaign, in which he took no active part, Baliol surrendered to Edward. He was imprisoned in England until 1299 and ended his days on his estates in France, ignoring the continuing struggle for Scottish independence.

Baliol, John de,

d. 1269, nobleman with lands in both England and Scotland; founder of Balliol College, Oxford. The name is also spelled Balliol. In 1249 he became a member of the Scottish council of regency and a guardian of Alexander III. However, he was apparently disliked by the young king and was discharged and heavily fined in 1255. He fought for Henry III of England in the Barons' WarBarons' War,
in English history, war of 1263–67 between King Henry III and his barons. In 1261, Henry III renounced the Provisions of Oxford (1258) and the Provisions of Westminster (1259), which had vested considerable power in a council of barons, and reasserted his
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 and was taken prisoner at the battle of Lewes (1264). His third son, another John, became king of Scotland.
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