Balkan Wars

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Balkan Wars,

1912–13, two short wars, fought for the possession of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. The outbreak of the Italo-Turkish War for the possession of Tripoli (1911) encouraged the Balkan states to increase their territory at Turkish expense. Serbia and Bulgaria accordingly concluded (1912), with the aid of Russian secret diplomacy, a treaty of alliance. In a secret annex, the treaty provided for joint military action and the division of prospective conquests. The outbreak of the war (Oct., 1912), in which Greece and Montenegro joined the original allies, was followed by the speedy expulsion of the Turks from all of European Turkey, except the Constantinople area. After the conclusion of hostilities Serbia showed intentions of annexing a large part of Albania, in order to gain an outlet on the Adriatic, but this step toward a "Greater Serbia" was opposed by Austria-Hungary and Italy and by the Albanians, who had proclaimed their independence. Conferences of the ambassadors of the Great Powers at London created (1913) an independent Albania of fair size, thus cutting Serbia off from the sea. Dissatisfied with these terms, Serbia demanded of Bulgaria a greater share of Macedonia. Bulgaria thereupon attacked (June, 1913) Serbia, only to be attacked by Romania, Greece, and Turkey. As a result of this Second Balkan War, Bulgaria lost territory to all her enemies by the Treaty of Bucharest (Aug., 1913). The Balkan Wars prepared the way for World War I by satisfying some of the aspirations of Serbia and thereby giving a great impetus to the Serbian desire to annex parts of Austria-Hungary; by alarming Austria and stiffening Austrian resolution to crush Serbia; and by giving causes of dissatisfaction to Bulgaria and Turkey.

Bibliography

See G. Young, Nationalism and War in the Near East (1915, repr. 1970); E. C. Helmreich, The Diplomacy of the Balkan Wars, 1912–1913 (1938, repr. 1969).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Balkan Wars and the Treaty of Bucharest (1912-1913) represent a historic milestone for the entire region.
Some of the Bulgarian-populated lands in Balkans were liberated from Ottoman Turkey by the Russian Empire in the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-1878 to form the Third Bulgarian State, which struggled up until the communist takeover in 1944 to unite all other Bulgarians in the Balkans in one state, including by waging the First Balkan War of 1912-1913 against the Ottoman Empire together with its neighbor allies, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro.
French believes that Balkan war criminals know fun well that their atrocities violate morality.
The Balkan nations quarreled over the spoils and there was a month-long Second Balkan War in which Bulgaria was quickly defeated by the others.
According to Serbian diplomatic sources, the motive for the effort of the Serbian secular authorities to make sure Macedonia is allowed to celebrate 2 August at the Monastery of Prohor Pcinjski was the fact that the Macedonian authorities allowed Serbia celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Kumanovo Battle of the First Balkan War at Zebrnjak.
When he scrutinizes the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 (chapter three), relying mainly on qualitative reports and interviews produced by Carnegie Commission, Mojzes finds a compelling case that genocide took place when Greeks systematically massacred Turks in the first Balkan War.
The award was scheduled as part of Bulgaria's celebration of the 100th anniversary since the start of the Balkan War in October 1912, in which Bulgarian troops liberated much of the Bulgarian-populated parts of the Southern Balkan Peninsula from the rule of the Ottoman Empire.
The EU came clumsily and too late to the Balkan War, when the United States pulled their chestnuts out of the fire,"remarked El Pais.
The reason for the visit is the celebration of the 100 year anniversary of the Kumanovo Battle in the first Balkan War.
The Turkish War Cemetery in Piraeus is the resting place for Turkish soldiers who were taken as prisoners during the Balkan War, First World War and the Turkish War of Liberation.
Anne rarely sees her lover, Georges (Thierry Neuvic), who flees to the safety of a Balkan war zone when the emotional going gets rough.
Italy and Portugal have already launched their own inquiries into the safety of depleted uranium ammunition following the emergence of so-called Balkan War Syndrome.