Baltic provinces


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Baltic provinces,

historic regions of CourlandCourland
or Kurland
, Latvian Kurzeme, historic region and former duchy, in Latvia, between the Baltic Sea and the Western Dvina River. It is an agricultural and wooded lowland. Jelgava (Ger. Mitau), the historic capital, and Liepaja (Ger.
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, LivoniaLivonia
, region and former Russian province, comprising present Estonia and parts of Latvia (Vidzeme and Latgale). It borders on the Baltic Sea and its arms, the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland, in the west and the north and extends E to Lake Peipus (Chudskoye) and the
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, EstoniaEstonia
, Estonian Eesti, officially Republic of Estonia, republic (2005 est. pop. 1,333,000), 17,505 sq mi (45,339 sq km). It borders on the Baltic Sea in the west; the gulfs of Riga and Finland (both arms of the Baltic) in the southwest and north, respectively; Latvia
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, and IngermanlandIngermanland
or Ingria
, Finnish Ingerinta, historic region, NW European Russia, along the Neva River and on the east bank of the Gulf of Finland. Its name derives from the ancient Finnic inhabitants, the Ingers, some of whose descendants (about 93,000) still
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 bordering on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. They were conquered by Russia from Sweden in the 18th cent. and made into provinces. Ingermanland was included into Russia proper, and the three independent republics of Estonia, LatviaLatvia
, Latvian Latvija, officially Republic of Latvia, republic (2011 provisional pop. 2,067,887), 24,590 sq mi (63,688 sq km), north central Europe. It borders on Estonia in the north, Lithuania in the south, the Baltic Sea with the Gulf of Riga in the west, Russia in
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, and LithuaniaLithuania
, Lithuanian Lietuva, officially Republic of Lithuania, republic (2005 est. pop. 3,597,000), 25,174 sq mi (65,201 sq km), N central Europe. Lithuania borders on the Baltic Sea in the west, Latvia in the north, Belarus in the east and southeast, Poland in the
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 were established in 1918. See also Baltic statesBaltic states,
the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, bordering on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. Formed in 1918, they remained independent republics until their involuntary incorporation in 1940 into the USSR. They regained their independence in Sept.
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.
References in classic literature ?
Even from my distant position by the door I could make out, by the shape of the blue part representing the water, that it was a map of the Baltic provinces.
No details ever came out, but it was known that the revolutionary parties abroad had given their assistance, had sent emissaries in advance, that even money was found to dispatch a steamer with a cargo of arms and conspirators to invade the Baltic provinces.
On the Silurian (and Cambrian) Strata of the Baltic Provinces of Russia, as compared with those of Scandinavia and the British Isles.
The Americans' decisions in December 1917 and January 1918 to add the Baltic provinces of Russia to the list of the so-called Hoover food aid recipients may be considered the beginning.
Before the war, trade between Finland and the Baltic provinces was regulated according to a statute concerning Finno-Russian trade issued in 1897.
One fundamental matter that Salmi raises, admittedly beyond the scope of this book, is how the "Germanness" of Wagnerism relates to the respective nationalist movements in the Baltic-coast countries at the end of the century (or, in the case of the Baltic Provinces and Finland, the push to-wards "Russification").
Additionally, both [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Balten) represented the regional collective identity and unity of the three Baltic Provinces.
36) At about the same time he also wrote to Aleksandr Meller-Zakomelski, the provisional Governor General of the Baltic Provinces, stressing that the government officials appointed to positions in the borderlands "must be of Russian descent, if not by pedigree, then by persuasion (no [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])" (37) Novoe Vremya noted that many Orthodox clergymen of Estonian origin were "politicking nationalists" who needed to be replaced with "individuals of Russian descent who are familiar with ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) the Estonian language".
While formally belonging to the Russian Empire, the Baltic Provinces enjoyed the Baltic Landesstaat (1) and the large population of Baltic Germans that lived in the region kept close contacts with their native land.
Cattle breeding eventually became more systematic in the Baltic Provinces under the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century, mainly because of increasing competition in the European market of agricultural products.
In fact, a more meaningful standard is activism, as indicated by various forms of political and social mobilization, and by this measure the differences between the two halves of the Baltic Provinces in 1905 appear much smaller, as this article will seek to demonstrate.
The most remarkable contrast between the Latvian and Estonian regions of the Baltic Provinces with regard to violent activity was in the number and location of murdered Germans (nearly all Baltic Germans, but also including two Reichsdeiitsche) during the revolutionary year.