Baltimore

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See also: National Parks and Monuments (table)National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.

Baltimore,

city (1990 pop. 736,014), N central Md., surrounded by but politically independent of Baltimore co., on the Patapsco River estuary, an arm of Chesapeake Bay; inc. 1745. The largest city in the state, it is a commercial and industrial center, a major railhead, and a seaport with extensive anchorages and dock and storage facilities. Coal, grain, and iron, steel, and copper products are exported. Among Baltimore's leading industries are shipbuilding, sugar and food processing, oil refining, biotechnology, and the manufacture of chemicals, steel, copper, clothing, and aerospace equipment.

Institutions and Attractions

A cultural and educational center, Baltimore is the seat of The Johns Hopkins Univ. with its famous medical center, the Univ. of Baltimore, Morgan State Univ., Loyola College in Maryland, the College of Notre Dame of Maryland, Coppin State Univ., and the Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, with schools of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, law, and social work. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) has had its headquarters in the city since 1986. Also there are the Peabody Conservatory of Music, the Maryland Institute College of Art, the Maryland Academy of Sciences, the Walters Art Gallery, and the Baltimore Museum of Art. The Enoch Pratt Free Library and the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra are well known. Since the 1970s filmmakers including John Waters and Barry Levinson have made Baltimore scenes widely familiar, as has novelist Anne TylerTyler, Anne,
1941–, American novelist, b. Minneapolis. Her witty and perceptive fiction, which is often set in the American South and frequently in and around Baltimore, portrays vivid contemporary characters involved in ordinary human life; she is particularly adept at
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.

The city's historical sites include Flag House; the first Roman Catholic cathedral in the United States (1806–21; designed by B. H. Latrobe); the Edgar Allan Poe House (c.1830); Westminster Churchyard, where Poe is buried; Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine (see National Parks and MonumentsNational Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.
, table); the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum; and numerous colonial homes. The U.S.S. Constellation, the first U.S. navy ship (1797) and a national historic shrine, as well as other historic ships, are docked at Baltimore's Harborplace.

Other landmarks are the historic square Mt. Vernon Place, which contains the Washington Monument (1815–42; designed by Robert Mills); Druid Hill Park, with a zoo and a natural history museum; and Pimlico Race Course, site of the Preakness, held annually since 1873. Many of the city's famous streets of redbrick row houses with scrubbed white steps still exist, although recent populaton loss has led to much demolition. H. L. MenckenMencken, H. L.
(Henry Louis Mencken) , 1880–1956, American editor, author, and critic, b. Baltimore, studied at the Baltimore Polytechnic. Probably America's most influential journalist, he began his career on the Baltimore Morning Herald
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, Babe RuthRuth, Babe
(George Herman Ruth), 1895–1948, American baseball player, considered by many the greatest of all baseball players, b. Baltimore. Early Life

When he was seven years old his parents placed him in St.
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, and Billie HolidayHoliday, Billie,
1915–59, American singer, b. Baltimore. Her original name was Eleanora Fagan. She began singing professionally in 1930, and after performing with numerous bands—especially those of Benny Goodman, Teddy Wilson, Count Basie, and Artie Shaw—she
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 were born in Baltimore. Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport is nearby.

History

The site was settled in the early 17th cent. and Baltimore founded in 1729. The excellent harbor soon made it a center for the shipping of tobacco and grain. Shipbuilding, an early industry, flourished during the Revolution and the War of 1812 with the fitting out of many privateers, and in the early 1800s the famous Baltimore clippers were built. The nation's wars have played a large role in the city's history. When the British occupied (1777) Philadelphia, Baltimore became the meeting place of the Continental Congress. In the War of 1812 the gallant defense of Fort McHenryFort McHenry,
former U.S. military post in Baltimore harbor; built 1794–1805. In the War of 1812 it was bombarded (Sept. 13–14, 1814) by a British fleet under Sir Alexander Cochrane, but the fort, commanded by Maj. George Armistead, resisted the attack.
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 inspired Francis Scott KeyKey, Francis Scott
, 1779–1843, American poet, author of the Star-spangled Banner, b. present Carroll co., Md. A lawyer, he was U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia (1833–41).
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 to write "The Star-spangled Banner."

After the War of 1812, Baltimore experienced phenomenal growth, largely because of the National RoadNational Road,
U.S. highway built in the early 19th cent. At the time of its construction, the National Road was the most ambitious road-building project ever undertaken in the United States. It finally extended from Cumberland, Md., to St.
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. When the Erie Canal (completed in 1825) endangered the city's hold on trans-Allegheny traffic, Baltimore businessmen chartered (1827) the Baltimore & Ohio RRBaltimore & Ohio Railroad
(B&O), first U.S. public railroad, chartered in 1827 by a group of Baltimore businessmen to regain trans-Allegheny traffic lost to the newly opened Erie Canal.
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 to meet the competition of New York as the ocean outlet for the West. During the Civil War, Baltimore was strongly pro-Southern in sentiment; the 6th Massachusetts Regiment, passing through the city in Apr., 1861, was attacked by a mob. A disastrous fire in 1904 destroyed almost the entire downtown but enabled the emergence of a better planned city.

In World Wars I and II, Baltimore was an important shipbuilding and supply-shipping center. During the 1960s and 70s, however, Baltimore decayed rapidly, losing population and commerce, largely to neighboring suburbs. Urban redevelopment in the late 1970s and 1980s included the construction of Harborplace (shops and restaurants) in the Inner Harbor area, the National Aquarium, shopping pavilions, hotels, a convention center, the Maryland Science Center, and the American Visionary Art Museum. Waterside renewal continued through the 1990s, and old neighborhoods such as Fells Point became newly popular. In 1983 a rapid-transit line to the suburbs was opened. In 1992, Baltimore's professional baseball team, the Orioles, moved to the new Oriole Park at Camden Yards; the National Football League's Ravens began play nearby in 1998.

Bibliography

See J. T. Scharf, History of Baltimore (1881; repr. in 2 vol., 1971) and The Chronicles of Baltimore (1874, repr. 1972); S. Olsen, Baltimore (1976) and Baltimore: The Building of an American City (1980); R. Miller et al., Baltimore (1988).

Baltimore (Independent City), Maryland

100 N Holliday St
Baltimore, MD 21202
Phone: (410) 396-3100
Fax: (410) 396-9568
www.ci.baltimore.md.us

In northern MD on Patapsco River, upper Chesapeake Bay, 41 mi. northeast of Washington, DC. Founded 1729; incorporated 1796. Distinct from and independent of Baltimore County since 1851, with the same political power as a county. Major East Coast port. Headquarters of McCormick & Co, world's largest producer of spices and seasonings. Other industries include steel, chemicals, and manufacture of radar and other electronic equipment. Site of Johns Hopkins University. Site of Fort McHenry, whose bombardment by the British in 1814 inspired Francis Scott Key (1779-1843) to write The Star-Spangled Banner. Name Origin: For the barony of Baltimore in Ireland, source of the hereditary title Lord Baltimore of the Calvert family, proprietors of the colony of MD

Area (sq mi):: 92.08 (land 80.80; water 11.27) Population per square mile: 7869.00
Population 2005: 635,815 State rank: 4 Population change: 2000-20005 -2.40%; 1990-2000 -11.50% Population 2000: 651,154 (White 31.00%; Black or African American 64.30%; Hispanic or Latino 1.70%; Asian 1.50%; Other 2.50%). Foreign born: 4.60%. Median age: 35.00
Income 2000: per capita $16,978; median household $30,078; Population below poverty level: 22.90% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $24,789-$27,828
Unemployment (2004): 7.40% Unemployment change (from 2000): 3.00% Median travel time to work: 31.10 minutes Working outside county of residence: 38.10%
Cities with population over 10,000: None
See other counties in .

Baltimore

1
1. David. born 1938, US molecular biologist: shared the Nobel prize for physiology or medicine (1975) for his discovery of reverse transcriptase
2. Lord. See (Sir George) Calvert

Baltimore

2
a port in N Maryland, on Chesapeake Bay. Pop.: Pop.: 628 670 (2003 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
A portrait of Malcom X was hanging above him as he spoke in the dining room of Viva House, where he and his wife have fed countless homeless and working poor Baltimoreans over the years.
While white Baltimoreans struggled to implement such laws, they also more firmly closed off access to the social clubs and the professional societies that might have allowed Negro lawyers and doctors to better establish their reputations.
Though he may be single and childless, the Baltimorean takes issue with public education, which "could use some work.
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Once in office, however, Agnew responded to the spiraling murder rate and street crime that "to blue-collar Baltimoreans .
Bruce explores the creation of the 1826 "Memorial of the Free People of Colour to the Citizens of Baltimore," a joint product of free black Baltimoreans and the white-led American Colonization Society which illustrates the interplay between black and white rhetorical traditions.
Working with three fellow Baltimoreans, Reform Rabbis William Rosenau, Abraham Shaw, and Abraham Shusterman, Lazaron projected a biweekly magazine called The Jewish Challenge that would be distributed for several months gratis to all congressmen, governors, and a large list of Jews and Christian ministers.
Baltimoreans can see and learn more about all of their favorite breeds on Saturday, February 2 when the AKC/Eukanuba National Championship -- where the country's top dogs compete for $225,000 in prize money and the title of "National Champion" --airs on Animal Planet from 8-11 p.
David Cordish made an interesting analogy between his Company's decision to retain the Waterside name in Norfolk and a similar decision to retain the Power Plant name in Baltimore: "The Power Plant evokes warm memories, and was well known to Baltimoreans.
By the time Holy Week concluded, Baltimoreans could anticipate five murders, 14 shootings, 72 robberies, 116 aggravated assaults, 107 burglaries, 299 larcenies, 119 auto thefts, 340 misdemeanor narcotics arrests, and 105 felony narcotics arrests: the city's 2005 weekly average.
For Baltimoreans and Washingtonians, this one-day sale is the perfect reason to take a business or leisure trip to dozens of cities across the country.
The Fund will support focused interventions to improve police accountability and police--community relationships, reduce the number of Baltimoreans caught up in the criminal system without compromising public safety, and engage Marylanders, especially young people, in advocacy for programs and policies to increase opportunity and racial justice.