Ban Ki-Moon

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Ban Ki-Moon

(bän gē-mo͞on), 1944–, South Korean diplomat, secretary-general of the United Nations (2007–16), b. Chungju, grad. Seoul National Univ. (B.S., 1970), Kennedy School of Government, Harvard (M.P.A., 1985). A career diplomat, Ban held a series of posts in the South Korean foreign ministry and in its embassies abroad, including ambassador to Austria (1998–2000) and to the United Nations (2001–2) and minister of foreign affairs and trade (2004–6). In 2006 he was elected to succeed Kofi AnnanAnnan, Kofi Atta
1938–, Ghanaian diplomat, secretary-general of the United Nations (1997–2006), b. Kumasi. The scion of a family of Fante chieftains, he studied at Macalester College, St. Paul, Minn. (grad. 1961), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.A.
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 as UN secretary-general; he was reelected in 2011. Ban continued his predecessors' efforts to modernize and restructure the UN administration. Although less of an activist than Annan, he consistently pursued throughout his two terms a broader and more effective international agreement on climate change, which ultimately culminated in the 2015 accord that was signed in Paris by 175 nations (see global warmingglobal warming,
the gradual increase of the temperature of the earth's lower atmosphere as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution. Global warming and its effects, such as more intense summer and winter storms, are also referred to as climate
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). Efforts at peacekeeping and protecting civilians from armed conflicts proved generally more difficult during his tenure, and were in some cases (Syria, E Ukraine) stymied by tensions on the Security Council between Russian and the West. António GuterresGuterres, António
(António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres), 1949–, Portuguese political leader, secretary-general of the United Nations (2017–), b. Lisbon, grad. Instituto Superior Ténico, Univ. of Lisbon (1971).
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 succeeded Ban as UN secretary-general.