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banner system,Manchu conscription system. Companies of ManchuManchu
, people who lived in Manchuria for many centuries and who ruled China from 1644 until 1912. These people, related to the Tungus, were descended from the Jurchen, a tribe known in Asia since the 7th cent. They were first called Manchu in the early 17th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. warriors were grouped (1601) into brigades, each with a distinctive banner. The banner system integrated former tribal units into a bureaucratic war machine that enabled the Manchus to conquer and rule China as the Ch'ingCh'ing
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background
The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
..... Click the link for more information. dynasty (1644–1912). Banners (brigades) and their component companies did not live and fight as units but were garrisoned at various places and contributed a certain quota of men to make up a fighting force when needed. Later, banners of Mongol and Chinese adherents were also organized. About 1.5 million bannermen and their families were garrisoned at strategic points and major population centers throughout China. By the 19th cent. corruption and inefficiency pervaded the banner system, forcing the Ch'ing government to rely increasingly on provincial militia.