I would like to thank Mart Laanemets, Feng Zheng, Zhengzhang Shangfang, Ago Kunnap, Urmas Sutrop, Li Baojia
and Jaan Kaplinski (ordered by date) for their published support inspired by my earlier publications on Sino-Finnic.
This may have resulted from the policy of forced departure of the population by the authorities and the enforcement of the baojia
This judicial structure was reinforced by a community mutual responsibility system, the baojia
20) This practice continued through the Yuan dynasty and was further developed into much more elaborate local administrative schemes in the Ming involving the so-called lijia system [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], fangzhang system [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], qunzhang system [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and baojia system [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
The aforementioned baojia and lijia networks that were designed to organize and bring order to local villages also strengthened the connections between clan members.
The other three great works are Guanchang xianxingji [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Bureaucracy Exposed) by Li Baojia
[CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) (1867-1906), Ershinian muduzhi guaixianzhuang [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Strange Things Seen in the Last Twenty Years) by Wu Woyao [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1866-1910), and Niehai hua [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (The Flower in the Sea of Retribution) by Zeng Pu [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1872-1935).
Ltd, Shenzhen Chenxunda Technology, Eauto Communication Facility, Baojia
Communication Facility, Shenzhen Haoyitong, Lanbo Electronics, Shenzhen Hoffer, Guangzhou Weierwei, Puxing Electronics Co.
51) With the abolishment of the baojia system (being putatively a remnant of corrupt feudalism), organizing a mass support network to fill the vacuum in governance became a central concern of the new regime in post-Liberation Shanghai.
But, in Cucumber Lane, from the breakdown of the baojia system in 1949 until the formal establishment of the Residents' Committee in 1954, (53) the residents did not experience great chaos due to the lack of a formal system of governance.
577-610; Chen Baoliang, "Mingdai de baojia yu huojia," Mingshi yanjiu3 (1993): 59-66, 134.
For Hongzhi period Daming, see Zhang Xuan, Xiyuan wenjian lu, juan 96, cited in Chen, "Mingdai de baojia yu huofu," p.
According to a Qing administrative regulation, each professional beggar was to be registered under the baojia
system and issued an identification board by county yamen.