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hair on the lower portion of the face. The term mustache refers to hair worn above the upper lip. Attitudes toward facial hair have varied in different cultures. In ancient Egypt, as well as Turkey and India, the beard was regarded as a sign of dignity and wisdom. Beards continued into the Greek civilization until the 4th cent. B.C., when Alexander the Great ordered his soldiers shaved. The Romans, however, actually introduced the practice of regular shaving. The belief that the beard denotes wisdom was widespread in ancient China, and the cult of the beard has been dominant in Middle Eastern cultures from ancient times to the recent past. As a symbol of virility and status, the beard has often acquired religious significance. Muhammad enjoined his followers to grow beards; the Sikhs of India are not permitted to remove a single hair from their bodies; and the patriarchs of the tribes of Israel were bearded. Hindus, on the other hand, have traditionally been clean-shaven. Prior to the 7th cent., most Anglo-Saxons wore beards, but with the spread of Christianity, beards were discouraged. However, since that time beards of all sizes and shapes have appeared and disappeared with the cycles of fashion. The guardsman's mustache of the 18th and early 19th cent. was the sign of an army man, and after 1830 the beard became the emblem of the French radicals. In the 20th cent. beards and mustaches were generally out of fashion until the 1960s when, together with long hair, they became popular with young people.


See R. Reynolds, Beards (1950).




1. the hair growing on the lower parts of a man's face
2. any similar growth in animals
3. a tuft of long hairs in plants such as barley and wheat; awn
4. the gills of an oyster


Beards are usually associated with masculinity, wisdom, strength; and the men who have them typically command respect. Moses, Jesus, Charles Darwin, and Abraham Lincoln all had beards. Old dream interpretation books say that dreaming of bearded men is a good omen, and good luck will follow. On the other hand, dreaming about women with beards is said to be bad luck. It’s no wonder that traditionally a woman who is strong, wise, and who commands respect was considered threatening. If you are a woman dreaming that you have a beard, you may be dealing with your own issues of power. You may be using more masculine energy than you would like to or than is necessary. Also, since beards conceal the faces of those who have them, they may symbolize negative characteristics, such as deception, extreme guardedness, or of the shadow (Bluebeard, a folktale by Charles Perrault).
References in periodicals archive ?
At Matheny, Barba will have oversight of medical services, nursing, social services, psychological care and the rehabilitative and therapeutic services departments.
I am thankful for the jury's verdict and hope my story can help other women who are suffering from mesh complications to receive the resolution they deserve," said Deborah Barba.
If he and fellow Aussie international Andrew Fifita make the sort of impact they did against Canberra, they can make inroads into a Brisbane defence that was flaky at best against the Rabbitohs and allow the likes of Barba and scheming hooker Michael Ennis to wreak havoc.
Barba, the tables would retail for at least $1,000 each.
Whirls of wind can be particularly useful: these little vortices "can give flying snakes an extra lift," Barba noted.
com, two-thirds do not have an e-commerce site, according to Barba.
Summer House Director AnnaMarie Barba, LVN, has traveled a diverse career path that led her to long-term care.
Flint Group announced that effective immediately, Geoff Barba will assume the newly created position of business development manager--corrugated market, for the U.
To be elected and designated as a Fellow in Hospital Medicine, the candidate must demonstrate their dedication to quality and process improvement, commitment to organizational teamwork and leadership, as well as lifelong learning and education and be a hospitalist for five years, and a member of SHM for three years, Barba is president and founding member of the Society of Hospital Medicine of New Jersey.
The perception is that we've pulled off what is considered to be the holy grail of visual effects," says Digital Domain's Eric Barba.
Hotel marketing director Francesca Barba said negotiations were continuing with the Italian, who is understood to be keen to expand his business in the Gulf and wants to use the package to introduce himself to clients.
We want to create real action," said Steve Barba, executive director of university relations at Plymouth State University.