Barbary States


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Barbary States,

term used for the North African states of TripolitaniaTripolitania
, historic region, W Libya, bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. Tripoli is the chief city. The original inhabitants of the region were probably Berbers. In the 7th cent. B.C.
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, TunisiaTunisia
, Fr. Tunisie, officially Republic of Tunisia, republic (2005 est. pop. 10,075,000), 63,378 sq mi (164,150 sq km), NW Africa. Occupying the eastern portion of the great bulge of North Africa, Tunisia is bounded on the west by Algeria, on the north and east by the
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, AlgeriaAlgeria
, Arab. Al Djazair, Fr. Algérie, officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, republic (2005 est. pop. 32,532,000), 919,590 sq mi (2,381,741 sq km), NW Africa, bordering on Mauritania, Western Sahara, and Morocco in the west, on the
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, and MoroccoMorocco
, officially Kingdom of Morocco, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 32,726,000), 171,834 sq mi (445,050 sq km), NW Africa. Morocco is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea (N), the Atlantic Ocean (W), Western Sahara (S), and Algeria (S and E).
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. From the 16th cent. Tripolitania, Tunisia, and Algeria were autonomous provinces of the Turkish Empire. Morocco pursued its own independent development. The corsair BarbarossaBarbarossa
[Ital.,=red-beard], surname of the Turkish corsair Khayr ad-Din (c.1483–1546). Barbarossa and his brother Aruj, having seized (1518) Algiers from the Spanish, placed Algeria under Turkish suzerainty. He extended his conquests to the rest of the Barbary States.
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 and his brothers led the Turkish conquest to prevent the region from falling to Spain. A last attempt by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to drive out the Turks failed in 1541. The piracy carried on thereafter by the Muslims of North Africa began as part of the wars against Spain. In the 17th and 18th cent., when the Turkish hold on the area grew weaker, the raids became less military and more commercial in character. The booty, ransom, and slaves that resulted from attacks on Mediterranean towns and shipping and from occasional forays into the Atlantic became the main source of revenue for local Muslim rulers. All the major European naval powers made attempts to destroy the corsairs, and British and French fleets repeatedly bombarded the pirate strongholds. Yet, on the whole, countries trading in the Mediterranean found it more convenient to pay tribute than to undertake the expensive task of eliminating piracy. Toward the end of the 18th cent. the power of the piratical states diminished. The United States and the European powers took advantage of this decline to launch more attacks. American opposition resulted in the Tripolitan WarTripolitan War
, 1800–1815, conflict between the United States and the Barbary States. Piracy had become a normal source of income in the N African Barbary States long before the United States came into existence.
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. After the Napoleonic wars, European opinion clearly favored destroying the pirates. In 1816 Lord ExmouthExmouth, Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount
, 1757–1833, English admiral. He entered the navy in 1770 and served in both the American Revolutionary War and the subsequent British conflicts with Revolutionary and
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 with an Anglo-Dutch flotilla all but ended the naval power of the dey of Algiers. An ultimatum from the European Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1819) compelled the bey of Tunis to give up piracy. The Tunisian fleet was subsequently sent to help the Ottomans in Greece and was destroyed (1827) at the battle of Navarino. In 1830, France, after a three-year blockade of Algiers, began the conquest of Algeria. The Ottoman Turks were able to reassert (1835) direct control over Tripolitania and end piracy there. About the same time the sultans of Morocco, who had occasionally encouraged piracy, were forced by France, Great Britain, and Austria to give up plans to rebuild the Moroccan fleet, and North African piracy was at an end.
References in periodicals archive ?
Most of these studies are, in addition, redundant insofar as they all glorified the young and inexperienced American state and underlined its brave efforts to strike commercial deals with the "predatory" Barbary States.
As a method of countering the pirates, commerce raiding would not prove effective because the Barbary states did not have large merchant marines.
In 1795, the United States paid more than $ 1 million for the release of 115 sailors and the same amount, demanded by the Barbary States, as tribute to prevent further attacks.
ships, Jefferson sent the Navy to bombard Tripoli (now Libya's capital), starting a war that lasted four years, defeated the Barbary states, and ended piracy in the region.
Wheelan, without forcing his opinion, boldly places the reader in a position to see the prequel to history repeating itself--Jefferson's actions against the Barbary States (1801-1805) on foreign soil vis-a-vis Bush's actions against Afghanistan and Iraq (2001-present) on foreign soil.
As recently as the 1820s, pirates from the Islamic North African Barbary States were capturing Christians from trading vessels in the Mediterranean and Atlantic and enslaving them.
The popular shorthand for the depredations of the Barbary corsairs at the time was "the Terror"; Wheelan makes the point clearer by calling it "state-sponsored terrorism," and the payment of ransom in the form of tribute to the Barbary states "arms-for-hostages deals.
The author carefully integrates his readings of the drama with his discussion of international alliances and military actions involving England, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, the Low Countries, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Austria, Russia, Morocco and the Barbary States, the Ottoman Empire, and Safavid Persia.
Thomas Jefferson called the Barbary States 'petty powers' and declared they were no match for the new America, but the pirates commissioned by these North African states managed to stop American shipping and commerce cold.
In the War of 1812, he captured the British frigate, HMS Macedonia; and in 1816 forced the capitulation of the Barbary States.
Meanwhile, historian Joanne Pope Melish presents an analysis of the relationship between racism and republicanism in a two pronged essay on the mutability of the marks of servility in "white Negroes" in the nineteenth-century US and enslaved whites in the Barbary states of North Africa.
His mastery of Arabic convinced all that he was a traveller from the Barbary states.