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Bardeen, John(bärdēn`), 1908–91, American physicist, b. Madison, Wis., grad. Univ. of Wisconsin (B.S. 1928, M.S. 1929), Ph.D. Princeton, 1936. He was a research physicist at the Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1945 to 1951. In 1951 he became professor of electrical engineering and physics at the Univ. of Illinois. He is known for his studies of semiconductors and other aspects of solid-state physicssolid-state physics,
study of the properties of bulk matter rather than those of the individual particles that compose it. Solid-state physics is concerned with the properties exhibited by atoms and molecules because of their association and regular, periodic arrangement in
..... Click the link for more information. . He shared with Walter H. BrattainBrattain, Walter Houser,
1902–87, American physicist, b. Xiamen, China, Ph.D. Univ. of Minnesota, 1929. He was a researcher at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, N.J. from 1929 to 1967. He then taught at Whitman College in Walla Walla, Wash., until he retired in 1972.
..... Click the link for more information. and William ShockleyShockley, William Bradford,
1910–89, American physicist, b. London. He graduated from the California Institute of Technology (B.S., 1932) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1936). After directing antisubmarine research for the U.S.
..... Click the link for more information. the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work in developing the transistortransistor,
three-terminal, solid-state electronic device used for amplification and switching. It is the solid-state analog to the triode electron tube; the transistor has replaced the electron tube for virtually all common applications.
..... Click the link for more information. . He also shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics with Leon CooperCooper, Leon Neil,
1930–, American neuroscientist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Columbia, 1954. Cooper was a researcher at the Univ. of Illinois from 1955 to 1957 and at Ohio State Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. and John SchriefferSchrieffer, John Robert,
1931–, American physicist, b., Oak Park, Ill., Ph.D. Univ. of Illinois, 1957. Schrieffer was a professor at the Univ. of Chicago (1957–60), the Univ. of Illinois (1960–62), the Univ. of Pennsylvania (1962–79), the Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. for development of a theory of superconductivitysuperconductivity,
abnormally high electrical conductivity of certain substances. The phenomenon was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who found that the resistance of mercury dropped suddenly to zero at a temperature of about 4.
..... Click the link for more information. , becoming the first person to win a Nobel Prize twice in the same field.
Born May 23, 1908, in Madison. American physicist, one of the founders of the theory of superconductivity.
Bardeen graduated from the University of Wisconsin (1928). From 1945 to 1951 he was an employee of Bell Telephone Laboratories and in 1951 became a professor at the University of Illinois. His basic scientific work was done on the theory of solids and the physics of low temperatures. In 1948, together with W. Brattain and W. Shockley, he made the first transistor. Bardeen was the first to construct the microscopic theory of superconductivity (1957, in collaboration with others). In 1956 he received the Nobel Prize.
WORKS“Elektroprovodnosf metallov.” Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk, 1941, vol. 25, no. 1.
Novoe v izuchenii sverkhprovodimosti. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from English; in collaboration with J. Schiffer.)