artificial heart

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heart, artificial,

external or surgically implanted mechanical device designed to replace a patient's diseased heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. The first one used on a human being, the Jarvik-7, was implanted (1982) in Barney Clark, who lived for 112 days; another patient, William Schroeder, lived 620 days. Two major drawbacks of the Jarvik-7 were the danger of strokestroke,
destruction of brain tissue as a result of intracerebral hemorrhage or infarction caused by thrombosis (clotting) or embolus (obstruction in a blood vessel caused by clotted blood or other foreign matter circulating in the bloodstream); formerly called apoplexy.
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 from clots formed in the artificial heart and the need for the patient to be hooked to the external air compressor that powered the pump. By 1989 such devices had largely become a bridge to human heart transplants (see transplantation, medicaltransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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).

Beginning 2001, however, a second type of artificial heart, the AbioCor, was implanted in a number of patients. Unlike the Jarvik-7, the AbioCor is powered by electrical energy that is transmitted from a battery across the skin to an internal coil and backup battery. Because an opening in the skin is not needed to allow passage for tubes or wires, the risk of infection is greatly reduced. In addition, the external battery pack is designed to worn on a belt or suspenders, enabling the patient to be mobile. On average, the patients who received the heart from 2001 to 2004 and survived the operation lived for five months; the longest lived not quite 17 months. In 2006 the AbioCor was approved for use in patients who do not qualify for a heart transplant if their life expectancy as a result of heart failure is less than month; the device is also approved as a temporary measure for patients awaiting a transplant. A number of other artificial hearts have since been implanted temporarily or experimentally in patients, with varying degrees of success.

A related device, the ventricular assist device (VAD), or "artificial ventricle," is an internally implanted pump designed to aid a person with a failing left ventricle; unlike an artificial heart, it does not require removal of the patient's heart. A version for temporary use was developed in 1964. In 1991 doctors implanted the first portable VAD; it was powered by a battery pack. Its pump used a special interior lining to promote the growth of a surface similar to that which lines the blood vessels, reducing the risk of the formation of blood clots, which can cause stroke.


artificial heart:

see heart, artificialheart, artificial,
external or surgically implanted mechanical device designed to replace a patient's diseased heart. The first one used on a human being, the Jarvik-7, was implanted (1982) in Barney Clark, who lived for 112 days; another patient, William Schroeder, lived 620
..... Click the link for more information.
.

artificial heart

[¦ärd·ə¦fish·əl ′härt]
(medicine)
An endoprosthetic device used to replace or assist the heart.
References in periodicals archive ?
Young newcomer Barney Clark is suitably cute as Oliver, though surprisingly best of all is Jamie Foreman as evil Bill Sikes.
After an extensive search, Polanski chose the 11-year-old English actor Barney Clark for the title role in Oliver Twist.
Oscar-winning director Roman Polanski and screenwriter Ronald Harwood, who previously collaborated on The Pianist, reunite for this bold new retelling of Dickens that's set to make a star of its young hero, played by Barney Clark.
Barney Clark was implanted with a permanent total artificial heart at the University of Utah in 1982.
The CardioWest[TM] TAH-t is a modern version of the Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart that was first implanted in Barney Clark in 1982.
Jamie also thinks that being a father helped him in the scenes he had with Barney Clark, the 11-year-old newcomer who plays Oliver.
Barney Clark, a new total artificial heart is again being used to keep a dying patient alive at Salt Lake City's LDS Hospital.
The TAH-t is a modern version of the Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart that was implanted in Barney Clark in 1982.
Until now, the history of artificial hearts has been dominated by controversy and a few infamous cases which have hit the headlines, such as the tragic story of Barney Clark, the first recipient of a mechanical heart.
That was one of the big limitations for Barney Clark and the artificial heart -- strokes," McCarthy says.
The CardioWest(TM) TAH-t is a modern version of the Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart that was first implanted in Barney Clark in 1982.