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(self-designation Bashqort), nation (natsiia; nation in the historical sense), indigenous population of the Bashkir ASSR. They also inhabit the Cheliabinsk, Orenburg, Kurgan, Perm’, Sverdlovsk, Kuibyshev, and Saratov oblasts. They speak the Bashkir language. Total population, 1,240,000 (1970 census), including 892,700 in the Bashkir ASSR. Bashkir believers are Muslim Sunnites.

The ethnogenesis of the Bashkirs is extremely complex. The Southern Urals and the surrounding steppes, where the formation of the people occurred, were for a long time areas of varied cultural and linguistic interaction. In the latter half of the first millennium B.C., the Sarmatians, Iranian-speaking cattle breeders, lived in the south, and hunting and farming tribes of the Ananino culture, ancestors of the Finno-Ugric peoples, lived in the north of Bashkiriia. In the first millennium A.D., Turkic nomads began to penetrate the Southern Urals, and by the end of the millennium they occupied all of Bashkiriia. The Turkic tribes, after driving out and partially assimilating the native inhabitants, apparently played a decisive role in the linguistic, cultural, and physical makeup of the Bashkirs. The first written records concerning the Bashkirs date from the ninth and tenth centuries. The formation of the main body of the people had very likely been completed by this time. The Oghuz-Pecheneg tribes, Volga-Kama Bulgars, and later the Kypchaks (11—13th centuries) and several Mongol tribes (13—14th centuries) all contributed to the ethnic composition of the Bashkirs. After the defeat of the Golden Horde, the Bashkirs came under the dominion of the Kazan, Nogai, and Siberian khanates. Annexation to the Muscovite State (1552–57), which put an end to tribal fractionation, furthered the solidarity of the Bashkir people.

The chief occupation of the Bashkirs in the past was nomadic cattle raising; hunting, apiculture, and handicrafts, including weaving, felt-making, the making of pileless carpets, embroidery, and leatherworking, were widespread. Between the 17th and 19th centuries the Bashkirs changed over to farming and a settled mode of life. Dwellings are predominantly of wood, wattle, and adobe construction, and in the past the eastern Bashkirs lived in felt yurts (tirme). Clothing was sewn from sheepskin, homespun, and purchased fabrics; various ornaments made of coral, beads, shells, and coins were common.

In present-day Bashkiria, which received national autonomy in 1919, heavy industry and highly mechanized agriculture were developed in the course of socialist construction. Fundamental changes have occurred in Bashkir living conditions. Major advances have been achieved in science and culture, a national intelligentsia has appeared, and a national literature and professional art have been created.


Narody Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow, 1964. (Bibliography.)
Arkheologiia i etnografiia Bashkirii, vols. 1–2. Ufa, 1962–64.


References in periodicals archive ?
By means of this innovative solution, the Bashkirs would not only gain resilient, environmentally sound housing but a boost to its local economy via the creation of local jobs.
Total of members in cultural societies of ethnic minorities in 2008 Ethnic group Total of members Total of ethnic group * Armenians 163 1,444 Azeris N/A 880 Bashkirs N/A 152 Byelorussians 129 17,241 Chuvashs 106 495 Germans 950 1,870 Jews 2,707 2,145 Georgians 38 430 Kabardins 35 14 Koreans 88 169 Latvians N/A 2,330 Lithuanians 260 2,116 Maris N/A 245 Moldovans N/A 645 Mordvins 34 562 Ossetians 20 116 Tatars 166 2,582 Turkmens 8 36 Udmurts 35 241 Ukrainians 1,572 29,012 Uzbeks 10 132 TOTAL 6,321 59,954 * The total of the ethnic group as registered by the Population Census 2000 Source: Pirgop 2008, Statistics Estonia.
There are also some misleading implications, such as the suggestion that the Bashkirs and Kazakhs were only "weakly Islamized" in the late 19th century (see, for example, p.
This legend is still preserved in the oral tradition of the Tatars and Bashkirs.
The invention of a Tatar nation and its secession from the Bashkirs involved a departure from the notion of the historical unity of the Muslim peoples of the Volga-Ural region, ultimately leading to the creation of two separate autonomous Soviet republics with extremely complicated and conflicted ethnic structures.
And we will be able to restrain our older subjects, the Bashkirs and Volga Kalmyks, from their designs and from unification without the movement of great enemies.
Landau demonstrates convincingly how central to the development of Pan-Turkist ideas were the many intellectuals of Turkic origin from the Russian empire and later Soviet Union; Volga and Crimean Tatars, Bashkirs, Uzbeks, Azerbaijanis and others who settled as political exiles in Turkey or Western Europe for the most part.
The idea to create the ethnic channel occurred to representatives of Association of Tatars and Bashkirs of Kazakhstan, report local media.
158 (reference to fact that every one in the village is "from Russia" while "the Bashkirs and Kazakhs are farther away"); and PPG, v.
three percent like Tatars, and 2% said they like Bashkirs and people with origins in Mordovia.