Basidiomycetes


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.
Related to Basidiomycetes: Deuteromycetes, Zygomycetes

Basidiomycetes

[bə‚sid·ē·ō‚mī′sēd‚ēz]
(mycology)
A class of fungi in the subdivision Eumycetes; important as food and as causal agents of plant diseases.

Basidiomycetes

 

a class of higher fungi having special reproductive organs, or basidia. The typical mature basidium has four single-cell spores (basidiospores) located in special excrescences, or sterigmata. During germination each basid-iospore puts forth a septate primary (haploid mycelium) or a spawn. Thus, in most basidiomycetes a merging of cells of the same or different (heterothallic) spawns takes place. The diploid mycelium usually develops sexual bodies. (Rust fungi and smut fungi are spore bearing.) Later, meiosis occurs in the basidia (for smut and rust fungi, in the spores); this ends with the formation of usually four nuclei, which migrate to the now-developed basidiospores.

The class Basidiomycetes includes more than 15,000 species. Many of them are edible (for example, birch mushroom, cepe, and peppery lactarius), some are poisonous (fly agaric and death cup), some cause wood rot, and some destroy many agricultural crops. The classification of basidiomycetes is based upon the structural peculiarities of its sexual organs and spore bearing. Basidiomycetes are usually divided into two subclasses: Holobasidiomycetes, which has a single-cell basidium called the holobasidium, and Phragmobasidiomycetes, which has either a four-celled basidium, the so-called phragmobasidium, or a single-cell spheroid, pear-shaped, or elongated dichotomously bifurcate basidium. The subclass Holobasidiomycetes is divided into the following orders: (1) Exobasidiales, without sexual organs and basidia developing on the spawn under the epidermis of the feeding plant (parasites); (2) Aphyl-lophorales; (3) Agaricales; and (4) Gasteromycetales. The subclass Phragmobasidiomycetes is divided into the following orders: (1) Ustilaginales, (2) Uredinales, (3) Au-riculariales, (4) Tremellales, (5) Dacryomycetales, and (6) Tulasnellales. The sexual organs of the latter four orders are mostly of a jelly-like consistency. The phragmobasidia which grow on them are divided into four cells either crosswise, as in the Auriculariales, or lengthwise, as in the Tremellales; or they are single-cell basidia, dichotomously bifurcate, as in the Dacryomycetales, or spherical or pear-shaped, as in the Tulasnellales.

REFERENCES

Kursanov, L. I. Mikologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1940.
Bondartsev, A. S. Trutovye griby Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR i Kav-kaza. Moscow-Leningrad, 1953.

T. L. NIKOLAEVA

References in periodicals archive ?
A case of infection caused by the basidiomycete Phellinus undulatus.
The literature reports scantily the enzymatic activity of basidiomycete genera, focusing on soil (and not endophytic) strains that produce enzymes as lacease, peroxygenase and peroxidase (Arora & Gil, 2005; Schuckel, Matura, & Van Pee, 2011; Jarvinen, Taskila, Isomaki, & Ojamo, 2012; Yarman et al.
Fungal strains and climatic conditions for tests against basidiomycetes.
Purification and Characterization of a Phenoloxidase(Laccase) from the Lignin-Degrading Basidiomycete PM1 (CECT 2971).
Presently, there has been limited data illustrating the phylogenetic analysis of the Leucoagaricus species and its related species using molecular approach, the Leoucoagaricus species was under class basidiomycetes.
Lignocellulolytic enzyme activities of medicinally important basidiomycete from different ecological niches.
Protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from basidiomycetes inhibits endotoxin-induced activation by blocking lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and CD14 functions.
1995) basidiomycetes have some capacity to produce both the oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes to degrade ligncellulosic susbtrates and most white rot fungi produce these enzymes in order to provide their adaptation to the extremely rich in lignocelluloses.
Cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of Ganoderma tsugae, a basidiomycetes mushroom indigenous from Tanzania.
La biodegradacion por Basidiomycetes se considera un proceso no especifico, oxidativo y que es llevado a cabo fundamental mente por la accion de tres diferentes tipos de enzimas: Lignina peroxidasa (LiPs), Mn-Peroxidasas (Mn--Ps), las cuales dependen de peroxido de hidrogeno, y lacasa, la cual depende de oxigeno molecular (Gold y Allic, 1993; Gadd, 2001; Baldrian, 2002).