Basins


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Basins

 

depressions on the earth’s surface enclosed on all or almost all sides. Their diameter usually varies between tens and hundreds (rarely, thousands) of kilometers. They are mainly tectonic in origin. Tectonic basins are regions of sustained sinking of the earth’s crust, filled with sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The youngest tectonic basins are visible in the earth’s surface relief. Their form is usually more or less rounded and isometric or oval in peaceful regions of the earth’s crust (platforms) and linear in mobile belts (geosynclinal and erogenous zones); in the latter, they are frequently bounded by faults. Tectonic basins include synclises and aulakogenes (intracratonal mobile belts) on platforms, separate geosynclinal depressions (intrageosynclines) in geosynclinal belts, and advanced (lateral, foothill) and intramontane depressions and graben-rifts in orogenous regions. The fundamental causes of the formation of tectonic basins are processes in the upper mantle of the earth causing compacting or diffusion of its material, as well as the stretching of the earth’s crust with increases or changes in the planet’s velocity of rotation and, consequently, of its shape. Basins are also situated on the ocean floor. A special type of basin is the volcano-tectonic, particularly calderas, which are formed as a result of the settling of the crust after the ejection of a great volume of magmatic material; their diameter is measured in tens of kilometers, rarely over 100. Occasionally, the word“basin” is used synonymously with the terms “hollow,” “depression,” and “tectonic trough.” In recent times an effort has been made to differentiate between the meanings of these terms.

V. E. KHAIN

References in classic literature ?
When Sancho heard him call the basin a headpiece he was unable to restrain his laughter, but remembering his master's wrath he checked himself in the midst of it.
I am laughing," said he, "to think of the great head the pagan must have had who owned this helmet, for it looks exactly like a regular barber's basin.
When I got back with the basin, the doctor had already ripped up the captain's sleeve and exposed his great sinewy arm.
Fairer-than-a-Fairy eagerly ran to the window, but in her haste she upset the basin, and spilt all the water with which she had carefully filled it overnight.
Another steely tentacle directed the powder from the basin along a ribbed channel towards some receiver that was hidden from me by the mound of bluish dust.
The basin was refilled, and this time he stood over it a little while, gathering resolution; took in a big breath and began.
The head was so cleverly cut off that it fell into the basin, and directly the blood ceased to flow.
One says, "Of the beauty of the scene I can not say enough," and then proceeds to cover up with a woof of glittering sentences a thing which, when stripped for inspection, proves to be only an unobtrusive basin of water, some mountainous desolation, and one tree.
The great number of streams, basins and sub-basins existing within a drainage system calls for defining some hierachisation and codification criteria by proceeding either from gig to small or from general to particular:
The Barrel Springs basin project, estimated to cost $7.
Out of the fifteen research papers, five deal with fold-thrust belts and associated intramontane or piggyback basins, three papers focus on foreland basins, three on rift and/or graben/half-graben basins, two concentrate on intracratonic basins, one presents the case study of a divergent continental margin, and one other deals with a fore-arc basin.
If tectonics is important to the third-ordercycles, says Watts, then the strata patterns cannot be global--as Vail's group claims--because not all basins formed at the same time or have the same tectonic history.