Basque Country

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Basque Country

(băsk, bäsk), Basque Euzkadi, Span. País Vasco, comprising the provinces of Álava, Guipúzcoa, and Vizcaya (1990 pop. 2,159,701), N Spain, S of the Bay of Biscay and bordering on France in the northeast. The region includes the W Pyrenees and is bounded in the southwest by the Ebro River. It is crossed by the Cantabrian Mts. (In a wider sense the name also applies to other territories largely inhabited by Basques: Spanish NavarreNavarre
, Span. Navarra , province (1990 pop. 527,318), N Spain, bordering on France, between the W Pyrenees and the Ebro River. Pamplona is the capital. Land and Economy

Navarre province forms the autonomous region of Navarra.
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 and Basses-Pyrénées dept. in France.) BilbaoBilbao
, city (1990 pop. 383,798), capital of Vizcaya prov., N Spain, in the Basque Country, on both banks of the Nervión River, near the Bay of Biscay. A leading Spanish port and commercial center since the 19th cent.
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, capital of Vizcaya prov., is the largest Basque city and one of the chief industrial centers of Spain. Other cities include San SebastiánSan Sebastián
, Basque Donostia, city (1990 pop. 183,944), capital of Guipúzcoa prov., N Spain, on the Bay of Biscay at the mouth of the Urumea River, in the Basque Country near the French frontier. Picturesquely situated at the foot of Mt.
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, capital of Guipúzcoa prov.; VitoriaVitoria
, city (1990 est. pop. 209,506), capital of Álava prov., N Spain, in the Basque region. It is a manufacturing and administrative center producing furniture, motor vehicles, and refined sugar. It was probably founded in the 6th cent.
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, capital of Álava prov.; and historic GuernicaGuernica
, historic town (1990 pop. 16,422), Vizcaya prov., N Spain, in the Basque region. It has metallurgical, furniture, and food manufacturers, and some tourism. The oak of Guernica, under which the diet of Vizcaya used to meet, is a symbol of the lost liberties of the
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. Although Basque was recognized as the official language of the region in 1978, most Basques speak French or Spanish. In the densely populated coastal provinces of Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa the chief occupations are mining of iron, lead, copper, and zinc and metalworking, shipbuilding, and fishing. Álava is primarily agricultural; corn and sugar beets are grown, and wine and apple cider are made. Tourism is also important. Traditional Basque farming culture has given way to industrial development and emigration to France and the Americas.

For the history of the three provinces up to 1936, see BasquesBasques
, people of N Spain and SW France. There are about 2 million Basques in the three Basque provs. and Navarre, Spain; some 250,000 in Labourd, Soule, and Lower Navarre, France; and communities of various sizes in Central and South America and other parts of the world.
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. Shortly after the outbreak of civil war in 1936 the Spanish government granted the three provinces autonomy. The Basque nationalist leader, José Antonio de Aguirre, was elected president of the autonomous government, but a large part of its territory was soon in insurgent hands. The fighting was over by Sept., 1937, and the new Franco regime abolished Basque autonomy. Basque nationalism remained strong, however, and the region achieved autonomy again in 1979, electing its first parliament the following year. In its campaign for Basque self-determination, the militant Basque Homeland and Freedom (Euzkadi Ta Azkatasuna; ETA) mounted a terrorist campaign in which more than 800 people died; political parties linked to the ETA were repeatedly banned. A 1998–99 cease-fire by the ETA ended without a negotiated settlement. The regional government has sought even greater autonomy through political means. A plan for "free association" with Spain was passed by the region's parliament in 2004, but the plan was not approved by the Spanish Cortes. In Mar., 2006, the ETA announced a "permanent" cease-fire, and called for negotiations; the Spanish government agreed to talks three months later. A bombing in Dec., 2006, however, ended the chance for talks, and in June, 2007, the ETA ended its cease-fire. In Oct., 2007, the entire leadership of Batasuna, a party linked to the ETA, was arrested. In May, 2009, a regional government led by the Socialists took office; it was the first time since autonomy was restored that Basque Nationalists had not led the government. The ETA, under pressure from Basque separatist parties, announced a new truce in 2010, and then in 2011 said it had ended its armed campaign; it turned over arms stockpiles in 2017. The Basque Nationalists won a plurality in the 2012 regional elections.

Basque Country


(Vascongadas; Vasconia; Euzkadi in Basque), a historic national district in northern Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. It was an autonomous region in Spain in 1936–37. Area, 7,260 sq km. Population, 1,834,500 in 1969, most of whom are Basques. It includes the provinces of Vizcaya, Guipúzcoa, and Álava. The chief city and port is Bilbao. The Basque country occupies the lower eastern portion of the Cantabrian Mountains (elevation to 1,475 m) and the coastal hills rising above the Bay of Biscay. The climate is temperate maritime. The forests consist of broad-leaved trees (beech, oak, chestnut).

The Basque country is a major heavy industry region, which accounts for almost one-sixth of the gross value of output of the manufacturing industry in Spain. Despite depleted deposits and diminishing yields, the Basque country (province of Vizcaya) produces more than one-fourth of the total iron ore output in Spain (1.7 million tons in 1963). Lead and zinc ore deposits are also exploited (in the province of Guipúzcoa and, to some extent, in Vizcaya). The Basque country provides only one-fifth of its own electric power requirements—that is, 729 million kilowatt-hours, 41.5 percent of which is supplied by a thermal electric power plant (1966). The chief manufacturing industries are metallurgy (17.5 percent of the total work force and 40 percent of the gross value of output of the manufacturing industry of the region) and metalworking and machine-building (55 percent of the total work force and 30 percent of the gross value of output). The Basque country accounts for more than one-fourth of the total production of cast iron and more than one-third of the production of steel and rolled metal in Spain. Metallurgical production is concentrated in the Bilbao area; steel foundries and rolling mills are also located in the provinces of Guipúzcoa and Álava. Shipbuilding (approximately one-third of all dockyards in the country, including the two largest shipyards in Bilbao), the machine tool industry, the production of railroad equipment, electrical equipment, hoists, weapons, and so forth are well-developed. Bilbao and San Sebastián are the principal machine-building centers. Other industries include chemicals (production of acids and fertilizers, plastics, coke by-products), paper (approximately one-fourth of the total output in Spain), cement, and food. The agricultural specialty of the maritime provinces is the raising of meat and dairy livestock; farming is the principal activity of the province of Álava. Viticulture and wine making are carried on in all areas. The fishing industry is centered at the port of Pasajes. Seaside health resorts are concentrated mainly in the area around San Sebastián.


Geografía de España, vol. 2. Barcelona, [1955].


References in periodicals archive ?
Lhuillier recently met with Basque Country President Lehendakari Inigo Urkullu, Bilbao City Mayor Jose Maria Aburto, and businessmen from the Basque region to promote and explore opportunities for trade and investments in the Philippines.
Strategically committed to the Basque region and Navarra
The Chairman of the International Verification Commission, Ram Manikkalingam, said he hoped this important step would help consolidate peace in the Basque region.
Kaya 'yung mga separate communities nila doon sa Spain, sa Basque region at saka sa Catalonia, walang magawa, kasi meron sila ng parang safety clause na nagsasaad ng any move sa (The separate communities in Spain, in Basque region and Catalonia, couldn't do anything because they have safety clause which indicates that any move in) referendums in the direction of self-determination or separation from the rest of the state is not allowed,' she added.
5 kilometer long, which will take place in the Basque region, and will start in the northern city of Amorebieta municipality.
Watching the ball mesmerisingly ping around at over 125mph, from wall-to-bat-to-wall-to-bat, it strikes me that more than what this game actually is or how it is played--I'm drawn to what it stands for, a key ingredient in the unique identity of the Basque region.
Some thorough research in the Basque region of Spain by Eneko Anton and team (Basque centre for cognition brain and language) looked at bilingual and monolingual school pupils in the region and again found no bilingual advantage.
IN 1937 children from the Basque region were evacuated to the UK to escape the Spanish Civil War.
Aduriz's restaurant Mugaritz, in Spain's northern Basque region, was named the sixth best restaurant in the world this year by Restaurant Magazine, while Olvera's Pujol in Mexico City ranked at Noember 20.
Demonstrators, many draped in red, white and green Basque flags, raised their linked hands in the air along country roads and through towns in the Basque region as a helicopter flew over.
The world's largest industrial, worker-owned and run cooperative, Mondragon, founded in the Basque region of Spain over 55 years ago has agreed through its cooperative bank, Laboral Kutxa, to partner and build co-operative stakeholder businesses in local living economies throughout America with the U.
The chicks are part of a five-year project to restore breeding ospreys to the Basque region.