Basques


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Basques

(băsks), people of N Spain and SW France. There are about 2 million Basques in the three Basque provs. and Navarre, Spain; some 250,000 in Labourd, Soule, and Lower Navarre, France; and communities of various sizes in Central and South America and other parts of the world. Many preserve their ancient language, which is unrelated to any other tongue. They have guarded their ancient customs and traditions, although they have played a prominent role in the history of Spain and France.

The origin of the Basques, almost certainly the oldest surviving ethnic group in Europe, has not yet been determined, but they antedate the ancient Iberian tribes of Spain, with which they have been erroneously identified. Genetically and culturally, the Basque population has been relatively isolated and distinct, perhaps since Paleolithic times. Primarily free peasants, shepherds, fishermen, navigators, miners, and metalworkers, the Basques also produced such figures as St. Ignatius of LoyolaIgnatius of Loyola, Saint
, 1491–1556, Spanish churchman, founder of the Jesuits (see Jesus, Society of), b. Loyola Castle near Azpeitia, Guipúzcoa, Spain. Early Life and Ordination
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, St. Francis XavierFrancis Xavier, Saint,
1506–52, Basque Jesuit missionary, called the Apostle to the Indies, b. Spanish Navarre, of noble parents. He studied in Paris (1525–34), where he became an associate of St.
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, and Francisco de Vitoria.

History

Before Roman times, the Basque tribes, little organized politically, extended farther to the north and south than at present. But the core of the Basque Country resisted Romanization and was only nominally subject to Roman rule. Christianity was slow in penetrating (3d–5th cent.). Once converted, the Basques remained fervent Roman Catholics, but they have retained a certain tradition of independence from the hierarchies of Spain and France.

The Basques withstood domination by the Visigoths and Franks. Late in the 6th cent. they took advantage of the anarchy prevailing in the Frankish kingdom and expanded northward, occupying present-day GasconyGascony
, Fr. Gascogne, region of SW France. It is now coextensive with the departments of Landes, Gers, and Hautes-Pyrénées and parts of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Lot-et-Garonne, Tarn-et-Garonne, Haute-Garonne, Gironde, and Ariège.
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 (Lat. Vasconia), to which they gave their name. The duchy of Vasconia, formed in 601 and chronically at war with the Franks, Visigoths, and Moors, was closely associated with, and at times dominated by, Aquitaine. In 778 the Basques, who had just been reduced to nominal vassalage by Charlemagne, destroyed the Frankish rear guard at Roncesvalles, but they subsequently recognized Louis the Pious, king of Aquitaine, as their suzerain.

The duchy of Gascony continued, but the Basques early in the 9th cent. concentrated in their present habitat and in 824 founded, at Pamplona, the kingdom of NavarreNavarre
, Span. Navarra , province (1990 pop. 527,318), N Spain, bordering on France, between the W Pyrenees and the Ebro River. Pamplona is the capital. Land and Economy

Navarre province forms the autonomous region of Navarra.
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, which under Sancho III (1000–1035) united almost all the Basques. Although Castile acquired Guipúzcoa (1200), Álava (1332), and Vizcaya (1370), the Castilian kings recognized the wide democratic rights enjoyed by the Basques. GuernicaGuernica
, historic town (1990 pop. 16,422), Vizcaya prov., N Spain, in the Basque region. It has metallurgical, furniture, and food manufacturers, and some tourism. The oak of Guernica, under which the diet of Vizcaya used to meet, is a symbol of the lost liberties of the
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 was the traditional location of Basque assemblies.

With the conquest (1512) of Navarre by Ferdinand the Catholic, the Basques lost their last independent stronghold. After the 16th cent., Basque prosperity declined and emigration became common, especially in the 19th cent. Basque privileges remained in force under the Spanish monarchy, but in 1873 they were abolished because of the Basques' pro-Carlist stand in the Carlist Wars. To regain autonomy, the Basques supported nearly every political movement directed against the central authority.

In the civil war of 1936–39, the Basque provs., not including Navarre, defended the republican government, under which they had autonomous status; the Basques of Navarre supported the Franco forces. The Franco government, once in power, for the most part discouraged Basque political and cultural autonomy, but Basque nationalism retained its appeal to the Basques, and they continued to wage their fight for self-determination.

Following Spain's return to democracy, limited autonomy was granted to the region, and in 1980 the first Basque parliament was elected. Nonetheless, terrorist activities by the Basque separatist organization, Basque Homeland and Freedom (Euzkadi Ta Azkatasuna; ETA), which had begun in 1968, continued, ultimately killing about 800 people by the end of the 1990s, many of them police officers and soldiers. From 1983 to 1987 a secret government-sponsored death squad killed 27 and wounded about 30, most members of the ETA.

Basque nationalism, often involving unrest and violence by and against the ETA, has continued, but Basque terrorists and a separatist party lost some popular support in the 1990s. In 1996, Spanish and French officials agreed on joint measures to crack down on the terrorist group; a cease-fire (1998–99) by the ETA failed to lead to a peace accord. In 2001, Basque nationalist candidates won more than 50% of the vote in the regional parliamentary elections, but only about 10% supported the party aligned with the ETA. In 2002 that political party, then called Batasuna, was accused of collaborating with the ETA and suspended for three years; it was permanently banned the following year, and its leaders arrested in 2007. The ETA announced a "permanent" cease-fire in Mar., 2006, and the government subsequently agreed to talks. Few talks and no progress had occurred when a Dec., 2006, bombing in Madrid ended the talks, and six months later the ETA officially ended its ceasefire. A new cease-fire by the ETA, announced in Sept., 2010, after requests from Basque nationalist parties, was regarded skeptically by the Spanish government, which called on the ETA to disarm and disband. In Oct., 2011, the ETA declared an end to its armed campaign.

Moderate Spanish Basque nationalists have sought increased autonomy for the region. The Basque parliament approved a plan for "free association" with Spain in 2004, but it failed to win the approval of the Spanish Cortes. In 2009 Basque nationalists failed to win a majority in parliament, and the Socialist and Popular parties formed the regional government, but in 2012 the nationalists won a plurality. There is also strong support among French Basques for political automony.

Bibliography

See R. Gallop, A Book of the Basques (1930, repr. 1970).

Basques

 

(self-designation, Euskaldunak), a people living in Spain (provinces of Navarre, Guipúzcoa, Vizcaya, and Álava) and France (department of Basses-Pyrénées). Population in Spain, approximately 800,000 (1970 estimate); in France, approximately 130,000. Approximately 250,000 Basque emigrants live in Latin America. They speak the Basque language. Their religion is Catholicism. Their occupations include livestock raising, farming, and work in the metallurgical and mining industries.

The Basques are descendants of an Iberian tribe called the Vascones. Unlike the rest of the population in the Pyrenees, the Basques were never latinized. Most of the Basques maintained their independence under Arab rule. In the 16th century the northern regions of the territory settled by the Basques became part of France, and around the turn of the 16th century the southern regions were made part of the united Spanish kingdom, in which the Basques continued, however, to retain their own rights (fueros) until the latter part of the 19th century. The policies of centralization and compulsive hispanicization of the national regions, which were enforced in the 19th century, were resisted by the Basques, particularly at the end of the century. The Spanish Revolution of 1931–39 stirred up enthusiasm for the Basque national movement. An autonomous region, named Country of the Basques, was established in October 1936 on the basis of the Basque Statute which was approved by the Spanish Cortes. Basque autonomy was then abolished after the Country of the Basques was seized by the fascist troops of Franco (June 1937).

REFERENCE

Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, part 2. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography.)

IU. V. IVANOVA

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