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a device for automatically measuring out (batching) a predetermined mass or volume of liquid and bulk materials. They are used in the production of building materials; in metallurgy; in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries; in rail, sea, and river transportation; in laboratory work; and in trade.
The material to be batched can be measured in units of mass (kg) by scale batchers or in units of volume (cu m) by volume batchers. The output of the batcher is expressed by the ratio of the mass (or volume) to a unit of time (kg/hr or m3/hr). Both scale and volume batchers can be either periodic (discrete) or continuous with manual or automatic control. The choice of the type of batcher is determined by the nature of the production process and the properties of the materials. Periodic batchers are used mainly in production processes with vertical arrangement of equipment, and continuous batchers are used in processes with horizontal arrangement of equipment and conveyer transportation of materials.
Depending on the requirements of the production process, single-component batchers are used for the batch and continuous measuring of one material, and multicomponent batchers are used for the batch and continuous measuring of several bulk materials or liquids. In the multicomponent batchers, it is possible to carry out the process with automatic maintenance of the ratio of materials or correction of the ratio according to the set program. Discrete batchers usually are of the hopper type of design, and the continuous batchers are of the hopper and belt designs.
The simplest volume batchers do not provide sufficient accuracy; as a rule, complex and precise production processes are carried out using scale batchers. Automatic scale batchers are a complex consisting of a mass-monitoring sensor, an automatic machine for delivering the material, and an automatic system to regulate the dose or consumption of the mass. The main elements of a scale batcher include a volume batcher, which serves as the feed; a load receiver and meter (sensor); a recording and regulation system; and an actuator. According to their principle of operation, feeder batchers may be gravity-fed (usually a funnel), without force feed, and with force feed of materials using belt, screw, or plate conveyers or displacement and gear-type pumps.
Batchers make possible the economical consumption of raw materials, the reduction of material losses, the expansion of flow production, the elimination of many labor-intensive processes, and the improvement of working conditions.
REFERENCESKarpin, E. B. Raschet i konstruirovanie vesoizmeritel’nykh mekhanizmov i dozatorov. Moscow, 1963.
Mekhanizatsiia i avtomatizatsiia proizvodstva, 1969, no. 10.
E. B. KARPIN