the idealistic theory of evolution of the American paleontologist E. D. Cope, explaining the genesis of new signs in living creatures in the process of evolution as caused by the influence of a special energy (bathmism, or “strength of growth”). The action of this internal factor is directed, according to Cope, by external influences, the use of organs, and forces resulting from needs, as well as unconscious or conscious selection.
REFERENCEIstoriia evoliutsionnykh uchenii v biologii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
L. IA. BLIAKHER