Báthory

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Báthory

(bä`tôrē), Pol. Batory, Hungarian noble family. Stephen Báthory, 1477–1534, a loyal adherent of John IJohn I
(John Zapolya) , 1487–1540, king of Hungary (1526–40), voivode [governor] of Transylvania (1511–26). He was born John Zapolya, the son of Stephen Zápolya.
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 of Hungary (John Zápolya), was made (1529) voivode [governor] of TransylvaniaTransylvania
, Rom. Transilvania or Ardeal, Hung. Erdély, Ger. Siebenbürgen, historic region and province (21,292 sq mi/55,146 sq km), central Romania.
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. His youngest son became (1575) king of Poland (see Stephen BáthoryStephen Báthory
, Pol. Stefan Batory, 1533–86, king of Poland (1575–86), prince of Transylvania (1571–75), son of Stephen Báthory (1477–1534). He was elected to succeed John II as prince of Transylvania.
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, king of Poland) and was succeeded as prince of Transylvania by his brother, Christopher Báthory, 1530–81. Christopher married Elizabeth, sister of Stephen BocskayBocskay, Stephen
, 1557–1606, Hungarian noble, voivode [governor] (1604–6) and prince (1605–6) of Transylvania. Seeking to secure the independence of Transylvania, he supported his nephew, Prince Sigismund Báthory of Transylvania, first against the
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.

His son and successor, Sigismund Báthory, 1572–1613, was mentally unbalanced. At first a loyal vassal of the Hapsburg king of Hungary (Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf IIRudolf II,
1552–1612, Holy Roman emperor (1576–1612), king of Bohemia (1575–1611) and of Hungary (1572–1608), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II.
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), he crushed (1594) the pro-Turkish faction of nobles and was recognized by Rudolf as hereditary prince. In 1597, he abdicated in favor of Rudolf but returned to assume power in Aug., 1598. The following March he abdicated in favor of his cousin, Andrew Cardinal Báthory (d. 1599), but again reversed his decision and, with the help of Stephen Bocskay, returned to power as a vassal of Sultan Muhammad III. He abdicated definitively in 1602 (in favor of Rudolf) and retired to Silesia.

Elizabeth Báthory, d. 1614, a niece of Stephen Bathory, is celebrated in legend as a female werewolf. She is said to have slaughtered more than 600 virgins in order to renew her youth by bathing in their blood. She was incarcerated in 1610 and died in prison.

Gabriel Báthory, 1589–1613, a nephew of Andrew Cardinal Báthory, became prince of Transylvania in 1608. His harsh regime provoked a rebellion by the nobles, and he was murdered. By the marriage of his niece Sophia (d. 1680) to George II Rákóczy, the two families were united.

Bibliography

See biography of Elizabeth Báthory by V. Penrose (tr. 1970); B. Gould, Book of Werewolves (1865).

References in periodicals archive ?
Thanks to professor Maria Bathori for the 20-hydroxyecdysone.
Although ecdysteroids do not bind to the vertebrate steroid receptors and their mechanism of action is still unknown, many beneficial pharmacological properties are attributed to them (reviewed by Slama and Lafont, 1995; Dinan and Lafont, 2006; Bathori et al.
When Gomori draws a poetic portrait of Istvan Bathori, the Transylvanian king of Poland, or analyzes a Czech poem written to Gabor Bethlen, Transylvania's best ruler, our picture of these two great statesmen and commanders becomes automatically clearer, more complete.
THE count was a mix of tyrant Vlad the Impaler (Vlad V of Wallachia, 1456- 76) and the Countess Bathori, arrested in 1610 for murdering several hundred girls in order to bathe in their blood.
This encompassed the comings and goings of numerous composers, performers, and patrons, who played various roles in the dissemination of their music, one notable performer being soprano Jane Bathori (nee Jeanne-Marie Berthier), who directed the Theatre du Vieux-Colombier between 1917 and 1919.
Brooks Toliver seeks an authentic song style among the recorded singers closest to the composer--Mary Garden, Maggie Teyte, Jane Bathori, Ninon Vallin, and Claire Croiza--and reaches the conclusion that, beyond certain commonalities (such as fast tempos, a lack of synchroniz ation between voice and piano, scoops and portamenti, and undramatic diction), Debussy expected interpretive liberties above all.
54 Mylene Dubiau-Feuillerac (Paris 2012) compared Mary Garden's renditions of the Ariettes oubliees with readings of the poems, and Howat (Paris 2012), like Charles Timbre11 ("Debussy in Performance"), compared recordings of Debussy's songs by Maggie Teyte, accompanied by Cortot, with those of Jane Bathori, who condensed and expanded rhythms as she accompanied herself on the piano--singers also studied by Bergeron.
These three confessions, together with Catholicism, were established by a 1568 Transylvanian diet and confirmed by Prince Istvan Bathori in another diet of 1572 as the four legitimate religions of the realm (there was tacit acceptance of the Romanian-speaking Orthodox minority, as well).
Elizabeth Bathori - The most prolific female murderer in history, the 'countess of blood' killed 600 virgins in Romania.