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(also Chuana, Western Sotho), a language of the Sotho group of the southeastern Bantu languages. According to a 1970 estimate, Tswana is spoken in Lesotho, as well as in the western Transvaal and in northern Cape Province in the Republic of South Africa, by more than 1 million people.

The system of 9 vowels in Tswana exhibits the opposition open-closed in the phonemes [I], [e], [o], and [u]. Consonants include voiced and voiceless alveolar fricatives and affricates. Clicks, which occur only in ideophones, form a peripheral phonetic subsystem. Nasalization, palatalization, and alveolarization of consonants occur at morpheme boundaries.

Nouns are arranged in 18 categories, or noun classes, that form a system of concordances; there are two special classes made up of proper names, kinship terms, and totemic animals, and locative classes, which are weakly expressed in the other languages of the Sotho group. Classes are marked by monosyllabic prefixes. Verbs are conjugated by means of affixes; the diminutive aspect is formed by full reduplication of the verbal root.

The lexicon of Tswana abounds in ideophones. Sentences observe the following pattern: subject-predicate-object.


Crisp, W. Notes Towards a Secoana Grammar, 3rd ed. London, 1900.
Cole, D. T. An Introduction to Tswana Grammar. London-New York, 1955.
Brown, J. T. Secwana Dictionary. London, 1954.


References in periodicals archive ?
Yet women such as Dikeledi in Maru have been victims of chauvinistic males like Moleka, while the Khoisan teacher Margaret has been a victim of bias ensuing from both males and females in the Batswana village of Dilepe.
In the 19th century, hostilities broke out between the Batswana and Boer settlers from the Transvaal.
This study endeavored to investigate the portrayal of IPH and passion killings in Batswana (3) news media, in order to expand understanding of IPV in Botswana.
The Batswana, which is the proper term for citizens of Botswana, were quite active in helping the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) develop its 1965 manifesto by giving the BDP feedback on early drafts and attending political meetings.
The Batswana did more than lay out some general principles of toleration that look good on paper.
Access for All: The Masa Programme--providing all Batswana with access to care and treatment.
For example, in a study based on a sample of 781 Batswana (citizens of Botswana), Campbell (2003) reports that owing to considerable social aversion towards immigrants, short and specific-term residence are preferred over permanent residence by immigrants.
Initially one would argue that it is unlikely that there are any commonalities between the article on the experiences of widowhood among Batswana women and the article on the role of abuse in the development of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
The Masarwa is an untouchable," an outcast who is vilely used by the Batswana as "slaves and downtrodden dogs" (Maru, p.
This statement is supported by the Botswana National Development Plan (1991 - 1997) which stated that the wastage percentage of trained Batswana teachers per year is 8% of which 3.
A bite from the mamba kills Batswana, kills Makgoa, the same.
These words serve to contradict the social image of the Masarwa, slaves who are forced to live in so degraded a condition that the Batswana nurses refuse to touch them.