Gallipoli campaign

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Gallipoli campaign,

1915, Allied expedition in World War I for the purpose of gaining control of the DardanellesDardanelles
or Çanakkale Boğazi
, strait, c.40 mi (60 km) long and from 1 to 4 mi (1.6 to 6.4 km) wide, connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara and separating the Gallipoli peninsula of European Turkey from Asian Turkey.
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 and Bosporus straits, capturing Constantinople, and opening a Black Sea supply route to Russia. The idea of forcing the straits was originally promoted by Winston Churchill, then first lord of the admiralty. After the failure (Mar., 1915) of a British naval force to open the straits, British, Australian, and New Zealand troops landed (Apr. 25) at various points on the east coast of the Gallipoli Peninsula, while a French force landed on the Asian side of the straits. The Turks, under General Liman von SandersLiman von Sanders, Otto
, 1855–1929, German general. In 1913 he was made head of the German military mission to Constantinople to reorganize the army of the Ottoman Empire.
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, had been reinforced, and they put up stubborn resistance, preventing the Allies from making any important gains. Allied cooperation was poor, and there was lack of coordination between land and naval forces that resulted in a premature naval attack without sufficient support from the army. The two-month lag between the navy's arrival at Gallipoli (Feb., 1915) and the arrival of land forces (Apr., 1915) gave the Turkish army ample time to reinforce its troops. By April, the Turks had deployed six times as many troops as they had ready two months earlier. The landing (Aug., 1915) at Suvla on the west coast of the peninsula resulted in severe casualties. After months of costly fighting the Allied commander, Sir Ian Hamilton, was replaced by Sir Charles Munro, and the Allies withdrew from the area on Jan. 9, 1916. The evacuation was brilliantly executed.

Bibliography

See Sir Ian Hamilton, Gallipoli Diary (1920); R. R. James, Gallipoli (1965); L. A. Carlyon, Gallipoli (2001).

References in periodicals archive ?
IT was an imposing ceremony at the Gallipoli Memorial on Sunday last for the 97th anniversary of remembrance to those servicemen killed in the battle of Gallipoli in 1914.
The Crosland Moor woman, whose older brother died at the Battle of Gallipoli, is believed to be the oldest person in Huddersfield.
50pm Peter Weir's haunting First World War drama stars a young Mel Gibson and Mark Lee as two nave, patriotic Australian recruits whose innocence is shattered as they are fl ung into the horrors of the battle of Gallipoli in Turkey.
Peter Weir's harrowing drama which patiently explores the soldier's lives before they head off to the Battle of Gallipoli in Turkey.
The battle of Gallipoli was the disastrous invasion of a Turkish port by Australian troops in World War I.
Turkey traditionally commemorates its fallen soldiers in the Battle of Gallipoli on March 18 every year.
Crowe made his directorial debut on The Water Diviner in which he stars as an Australian farmer who travels to Turkey after the Battle of Gallipoli in a desperate bid to find his three missing sons.
TOMORROW at Stretton-on-Dunsmore, the annual short service of remembrance to servicemen killed in the battle of Gallipoli in 1914, will be held at the 29th Division Memorial at noon.
Private Kirkpatrick, from South Shields, South Tyneside, ferried 300 wounded soldiers to safety during the battle of Gallipoli in Turkey before he was killed by a sniper's bullet.
So, no surprise, after all, when Erdoy-an months ago declared that the commemorations of the Battle of Gallipoli would be held, not according to tradition, namely on March 18, but on April 24, the very day the arrest and deportation campaign against Ottoman Armenians began.
Selfless Private John Simpson Kirkpatrick ferried 300 wounded soldiers to safety during the battle of Gallipoli before he was killed by a sniper's bullet.
On Sunday March 14 members of the Gallipoli Association will assemble at the memorial near Stretton-on-Dunsmore at 12 noon for the 95th anniversary of the 1914 Battle of Gallipoli.