Gallipoli campaign

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Gallipoli campaign,

1915, Allied expedition in World War I for the purpose of gaining control of the DardanellesDardanelles
or Çanakkale Boğazi
, strait, c.40 mi (60 km) long and from 1 to 4 mi (1.6 to 6.4 km) wide, connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara and separating the Gallipoli peninsula of European Turkey from Asian Turkey.
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 and Bosporus straits, capturing Constantinople, and opening a Black Sea supply route to Russia. The idea of forcing the straits was originally promoted by Winston Churchill, then first lord of the admiralty. After the failure (Mar., 1915) of a British naval force to open the straits, British, Australian, and New Zealand troops landed (Apr. 25) at various points on the east coast of the Gallipoli Peninsula, while a French force landed on the Asian side of the straits. The Turks, under General Liman von SandersLiman von Sanders, Otto
, 1855–1929, German general. In 1913 he was made head of the German military mission to Constantinople to reorganize the army of the Ottoman Empire.
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, had been reinforced, and they put up stubborn resistance, preventing the Allies from making any important gains. Allied cooperation was poor, and there was lack of coordination between land and naval forces that resulted in a premature naval attack without sufficient support from the army. The two-month lag between the navy's arrival at Gallipoli (Feb., 1915) and the arrival of land forces (Apr., 1915) gave the Turkish army ample time to reinforce its troops. By April, the Turks had deployed six times as many troops as they had ready two months earlier. The landing (Aug., 1915) at Suvla on the west coast of the peninsula resulted in severe casualties. After months of costly fighting the Allied commander, Sir Ian Hamilton, was replaced by Sir Charles Munro, and the Allies withdrew from the area on Jan. 9, 1916. The evacuation was brilliantly executed.

Bibliography

See Sir Ian Hamilton, Gallipoli Diary (1920); R. R. James, Gallipoli (1965); L. A. Carlyon, Gallipoli (2001).

References in periodicals archive ?
NNA - Deputy Prime Minister Samir Moqbel and Justice Minister Ashraf Rifi represented Lebanon at the "Peace Conference" held in Turkey on the occasion of the centenary of the Battle of Gallipoli.
The terrible 1915 battle of Gallipoli - which claimed the lives of 4,000 allied troops from Australia and New Zealand as well as 7,000 Turks - provides the backdrop to this story, but it's more about one man's determination to find truth.
Thousands of Antipodeans, many of them young backpackers, gather every April at the historic Gallipoli peninsula to honour their ancestors killed in the 1915 battle of Gallipoli, one of the bloodiest of World War I.
With the centenary of the battle of Gallipoli just around the corner, Turkish audiences who want to relive the event onscreen have options, with at least two adaptations of the 1915 WWI campaign set for release.
ANKARA, Apr 26, 2011 (TUR) -- Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu has said that Turkey and Australia created a legacy of friendship and mutual respect, instead of a legacy of hatred and revenge after the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915.
IT was an imposing ceremony at the Gallipoli Memorial on Sunday last for the 97th anniversary of remembrance to those servicemen killed in the battle of Gallipoli in 1914.
50pm Peter Weir's haunting First World War drama stars a young Mel Gibson and Mark Lee as two nave, patriotic Australian recruits whose innocence is shattered as they are fl ung into the horrors of the battle of Gallipoli in Turkey.
Peter Weir's harrowing drama which patiently explores the soldier's lives before they head off to the Battle of Gallipoli in Turkey.
The battle of Gallipoli was the disastrous invasion of a Turkish port by Australian troops in World War I.
ySTANBUL (CyHAN)- ystanbul will host the world premiere of a new work by contemporary Turkish composer Hasan Niyazi Tura this weekend, marking both the opening of this year's hotly anticipated 43rd ystanbul International Music Festival and the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Gallipoli during World War I.
South Shields has a special link to the battle of Gallipoli in Turkey through John Simpson Kirkpatrick, who was born in the South Tyneside town.