Battle of Lepanto


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Lepanto, battle of

(lĭpăn`tō), Oct. 7, 1571, naval battle between the Christians and Ottomans fought in the strait between the gulfs of Pátrai and Corinth, off Lepanto (Návpaktos), Greece. The fleet of the Holy League commanded by John of AustriaJohn of Austria,
1545–78, Spanish admiral and general; illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He was acknowledged in his father's will and was recognized by his half-brother, Philip II of Spain. In 1569 he fought against the Morisco rebels in Granada.
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 (d. 1578) opposed the Ottoman fleet under Uluç Ali Pasha. The allied fleet (about 200 galleys, not counting smaller ships) consisted mainly of Spanish, Venetian, and papal ships and of vessels sent by a number of Italian states. It carried approximately 30,000 fighting men and was about evenly matched with the Ottoman fleet. The battle ended with the virtual destruction of the Ottoman navy (except 40 galleys, with which Uluç Ali escaped). Approximately 15,000 Turks were slain or captured, some 10,000 Christian galley slaves were liberated, and much booty was taken. The victors, however, lost over 7,000 men. Among the allied wounded was Cervantes, who lost the use of his left arm. Lepanto was the first major Ottoman defeat by the Christian powers, and it ended the myth of Ottoman naval invincibility. It did not, however, affect Ottoman supremacy on the land, and a new Turkish fleet was speedily built by Sokollu, grand vizier of Selim II. Nevertheless, the battle was decisive in the sense that an Ottoman victory probably would have made the Ottoman Empire supreme in the Mediterranean.

Bibliography

See R. Crowley, Empires of the Sea (2008).

References in periodicals archive ?
PHOENIX has recently published Hugh Bicheno's Crescent and Cross: The Battle of Lepanto 1571 ([pounds sterling]8.
John, to an attack ordered by the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent; the other is the great battle of Lepanto in 1571, shown with the island of Corfu, from which the Christian armada set off to engage the Turks.
He may already have seen El Greco's Adoration of the Name of Jesus (Escorial, Madrid; smaller version in National Gallery, London), which commemorates the Christian victory over the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.
The kings of Israel, the ancestors of Christ, the Roman emperors, the popes - all were named, and history was brought gloriously up to date through the Battle of Lepanto in which the young Alessandro Farnese had participated.
He begins with the great Christian victory at the naval Battle of Lepanto in 1571 but then retraces his steps to show the build-up of hostility, mixed with a co-existence based on trade, that had developed between the opposing religions.
The discussion of the monogram formed from IHS, and its accretions of meaning (first, the first three letters of the name Jesus in Greek, then In Hoc Signo, then Jesus Hominum Salvator) usefully explains its triple import in the sketch made by the learned Cretan, El Greco, in preparation for the large votive altarpiece in the Escorial to commemorate the victory of Christendom over the forces of Islam at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.
The earliest attestation of the name Mesologgi dates from after the naval Battle of Lepanto in 1571, when a Christian alliance comprising of the Papacy, Spain and Venice defeated the Turkish Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.
In the same letter Ribera claims that the Moriscos of Valencia cried after the Spanish victory in the battle of Lepanto in 1571 and rejoiced after the loss of La Goleta three years later (104).
A second historical title is Niccolo Capponi's Victory of the West: The Story of the Battle of Lepanto ([pounds sterling]9.
His defeat of the Turkish army at the battle of Lepanto stopped the Turkish advance and thus saved Europe from being conquered by the Turks.
The external threat of radical Islam--pardon the pleonasm--may be the geatest threat to Western civilization since 1571 when the Battle of Lepanto checked the incursion of what we used to call the paynim foe into Europe.
October 7, 2006 was the 435th anniversary of the Battle of Lepanto, which led the Pope to create the liturgical feast of the rosary for the whole Church.