a general name for a group of late Neolithic archaeological cultures spread through the forest belt of Central and Eastern Europe (mid-Dnieper culture, Fat’ianovo culture, boatlike ax culture, zloty culture, and so forth), and apparently linked by a common origin. Their typical traits include polished stone axes as the main weapons, ceramics (beakers and amphorae) with cord marks, and identical burial rites (single interments in the fetal position). The tribes of the battle-ax cultures engaged in cattle breeding and agriculture. They were the first known in Europe to have used ox-drawn wheeled carts. Some scientists associate the spread of the battle-ax cultures during the second half of the third millennium B.C. over vast areas of Europe with the settlement of a later wave of Indo-Europeans (Slavo-Balto-Germanic tribes).
REFERENCESChilde, G. U istokov evropeiskoi tsivilizatsii. Moscow, 1952. (Translated from English.)
Titov, V. S. Drevneishie zemledel’tsy v Evrope. In the collection Arkheologiia Starogo in Novogo Sveta. Moscow, 1966.
V. S. TITOV