Bay of Pigs Invasion


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Bay of Pigs Invasion,

1961, an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government. On Apr. 17, 1961, an armed force of about 1,500 Cuban exiles landed in the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the south coast of Cuba. Trained since May, 1960, in Guatemala by members of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with the approval of the Eisenhower administration, and supplied with arms by the U.S. government, the rebels intended to foment an insurrection in Cuba and overthrow the Communist regime of Fidel Castro. The Cuban army easily defeated the rebels and by Apr. 20, most were either killed or captured. The invasion provoked anti-U.S. demonstrations in Latin America and Europe and further embittered U.S.-Cuban relations. Poorly planned and executed, the invasion subjected President Kennedy to severe criticism at home. Cuban exile leader José Miró Cardona, president of the U.S.-based National Revolutionary Council, blamed the failure on the CIA and the refusal of Kennedy to authorize air cover for the invasion force, but perhaps more crucial was the fact that the uprising the exiles hoped and needed to spark did not happened. Much later it was revealed that the CIA task force planning the invasion had predicted that the invasion's goals unachievable without U.S. military involvement; it is unclear whether Kennedy or CIA chief Allen Dulles knew of the assessment. In Dec., 1962, Castro released 1,113 captured rebels in exchange for $53 million in food and medicine raised by private donations in the United States.

Bibliography

See K. E. Meyer and T. Szulc, The Cuban Invasion (1962); H. B. Johnson, The Bay of Pigs (1964).

References in periodicals archive ?
Kennedy tried to overthrow Castro, but failed with the Bay of Pigs invasion.
The rhetoric was heated: "With God's help a free Cuba is what we will soon achieve," Trump said in a theater named for a leader of the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion.
The US backed the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba and its aftermath between 1961 and 1962, followed by the Cuban missile crisis in October 1962.
As for Castro, he said the 'revolutionary leader of the entire world' stood up to 'American imperialists,' and even led the fight in the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 against 1,400 'mercenaries' who were 'American lapdogs' sent by the United States of America to topple his communist government.
1961: Fights off CIA-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion by Cuban exiles
Although the [Kennedy] library is unusually thorough in its performance of the failed outcome of the Bay of Pigs invasion, it does not display the failure of presidential decision-making widely thought to have caused it.
It is about Julian, a naive teen raised by a tyrant and a functioning voluptuary in a country ruled by a dictator who is sent out of Cuba to retrieve smuggled family jewels on the eve of the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
Documenting a long list of issues between the two countries, including the failed US-backed 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion, he wrote: "One assumes each of us runs the risk of a heart attack hearing these words from a US president.
They relate to George Washington's declaration of neutrality, the Alien and Sedition Acts, the Louisiana Purchase, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, the Espionage Act of 1917, Pearl Harbor and Roosevelt's request for a declaration of war, the Nazi saboteurs, Japanese internment, the Bay of Pigs invasion, Watergate, the Iran/Contra affair, the impeachment of President Clinton, the PATRIOT Act, prisoner torture during the administration of George W.
One assumes that each of us runs the risk of a heart attack hearing these words from a US president," Castro wrote while documenting a long list of issues between the two countries including the failed US-backed 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion.
When Castro turned to the Soviet Union to fill the gap, president Dwight Eisenhower issued a secret order to the CIA to topple the new regime, leading to the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961, in the first months of John F Kennedy's administration.
JFK understood how the latter tended to undermine the former, thus his skepticism about French Algeria, the United States in Vietnam, and overt support of the Bay of Pigs invasion.