the use of honeybees to pollinate agricultural crops—that is, to transfer plant pollen from the anthers of the stamens to the stigmata of the pistils.
Many grain, fodder, oil, essential-oil, industrial, fruit and berry, and melon crops require pollination by insects. The role of wild insects as pollinators in modern day farming is insignificant. The number of bee colonies needed depends on the area under cultivation, the duration of florescence, the amount of nectar in the plants, and other factors. For example, the pollination of 1 hectare of buckwheat requires an average 2–2.5 colonies of bees; sunflowers, 0.5-1; red clover and alfalfa, 1; sainfoin, 3–4; cotton, 0.5-1; fruit and berry crops, 2–2.5; and melons, 0.3-0.5. Greenhouse crops require one colony per 1,000 sq m of greenhouse space, and those in hotbeds, one colony per 500 frames.
To pollinate crops frequented only lightly by insects, it is recommended that the bees be trained to the fragrance of the flowers of the crops. Bee pollination is one of the most important conditions for improving crop yields.