The selections are not limited to the narrowly orthodox: Cathars, Lollards, and Waldensians are represented, as are Beghards
and Beguines, controversial visionaries (chapter 37) as well as recognized saints.
Examples abound throughout the book; the society of the Beguines and Beghards
, referenced in several sections, are certainly outside the modern norm.
The English-speaking world has had to make do with Ernest McDonnell's rather our-of-date and unwieldy, The Beguines and Beghards
in Medieval Culture: With Special Emphasis on the Belgian Scene (New Brunswick, NJ, 1954).
One would like more guidance to the scholarship on such topics as the medieval debates over scriptural interpretation, or the Beguines and Beghards
Jean-Claude Schmitt, Mort d'une heresie: l'Eglise et les clercs face aux beguines et aux beghards
du Rhin superieur du [XIV.
net/advent/) now contains nearly 7000 articles, many of which concern medieval persons and subjects, like "Beatification and Canonization," "Relics, "Beguines and Beghards
," or "Saint Clare of Assisi.
McDonnell, The Beguines and Beghards
in Medieval Culture, with Special Emphasis on the Belgian Scene (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1954), 301-303.
Some, like the religious confraternities, the guilds, the mendicant orders in their early days, the associations of mendicant Tertiaries, the Humiliati, and the Beguines and Beghards
were expressions of corporate religiosity.
Geybels's account of the beghards
or "male beguines" places their appearance a quarter century too late, and his discussion of the Franciscan and Dominican Third Orders veers onto the nonsensical: "The then Dominican Prior General, Muno de Zamora, established the Dominican Tertiaries in 1286 and in 1289 [sic].
When they did not enter the established mendicant orders outright, they became semiregular tertiaries, or they became beghards
and beguines, associated loosely and informally at best with the approved religious orders.
It would also be interesting to consider Simons's arguments about the mechanisms of gender in defining beguine identity by comparing their experience to that of their male counterparts, the beghards
See accounts by John Freed, "Urban Development and the `Cura Monialium' in Thirteenth-Century Germany," Viator 3 (1972): 311-27; Simone Roisin, "L'Efflorescence cistercienne et le courant feminin de piete au 13eme siecle," Revue d'histoire ecclesiastique 39 (1943): 342-78; Roger de Ganck, "The Cistercian Nuns of Belgium in the Thirteenth Century Seen against the Background of the Second Wave of Cistercian Spirituality," Cistercian Studies 5 (1970): 169-187; idem, "The Integration of Nuns in the Cistercian Order particularly in Belgium," Citeaux 35 (1984): 235-47; and Ernst McDonnell, Beguines and Beghards
in Medieval Culture, with Special Emphasis on the Belgian Scene (New Brunswick, N.