Samuelsson, Bengt Ingemar

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Samuelsson, Bengt Ingemar,

1934–, Swedish biochemist, grad. Karolinska Institute (Ph.D. 1960, M.D. 1961). He was a professor at the Karolinska Institute from 1962 to 1966 and again from 1973; from 1967 to 1972 he was on the faculty at the Royal Veterinary College, Stockholm. From 1983 to 1995 he was rector of the Karolinska Institute. Samuelsson received the 1982 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Sune K. BergströmBergström, Sune Karl
, 1916–2004, Swedish biochemist, grad. Karolinska Institute (Ph.D., M.D., 1944). With his former pupil B. I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane, he was awarded the 1982 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
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 and John R. VaneVane, Sir John Robert,
1927–2004, British pharmacologist, Ph.D. Oxford, 1953. With B. I. Samuelsson and Sune K. Bergström, Vane was awarded the 1982 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
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 for discoveries concerning prostaglandinsprostaglandin
, any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as in lower animals. Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every body tissue.
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 and related biologically active substances including thromboxanes and leukotrienes. Hormonelike substances found in virtually all body tissues and organs, prostaglandins have a variety of physiological effects including activation of the inflammatory response, formation and prevention of blood clots, and induction of labor and other reproductive processes. Samuelsson is credited with shedding light on the biochemistry of these substances.