Berwick-upon-Tweed(redirected from Berwick on Tweed)
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Berwick-upon-Tweed(bĕr`ĭk), former district, Northumberland, NE England, at the mouth of the Tweed River. The district included the Holy Islands and the Farne Islands and extended SW to the Cheviot HillsCheviot Hills
, range, c.35 mi (56 km) long, extending along part of the border between Scotland and England. The highest point is The Cheviot (2,676 ft/816 m). The North Tyne and branches of the River Tweed rise there. Since World War II the hills have been reforested.
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Berwick, located in the former district, is a market town and seaport, famous for its salmon fishing. Grain is the chief export; oil and timber are imported. Industries include shipbuilding, engineering, sawmilling, fertilizer production, and the manufacture of tweed and hosiery. The principal border town between Scotland and England, Berwick changed hands more than 13 times between 1147 and 1482, when Edward IV finally claimed it for England. It did not become officially English until 1885. Of interest are the Royal Border Bridge, the old barracks, and the walls surrounding the city that were especially designed to utilize artillery guns. Berwick-upon-Tweed was abolished as a local government authority in 2009 when Northumberland became a unitary authority.