(Turkish, “mountains of a thousand lakes”), a volcanic plateau massif in Turkey, located at the headwaters of the Araks River, at the junction of the Armenian Highland and the Dersim Mountains (Inner Taurus Mountains). Maximum elevation, 3,189 m. A sharply delineated ridge rises above the gentle slopes of the massif. There are many ancient glacial lakes. In the south fault cliffs face the Bingol Depression, which opens up into the valley of the Murat River (left-hand source of the Euphrates). Vegetation is of the frigana type (xerophytic shrub and semi-shrub vegetation).