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see biological diversitybiological diversity
or biodiversity,
the number of species in a given habitat. Scientists have variously estimated that there are from 3 to 30 million extant species, of which 2.
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The variety of all living things; a contraction of biological diversity. Biodiversity can be measured on many biological levels ranging from genetic diversity within a species to the variety of ecosystems on Earth, but the term most commonly refers to the number of different species in a defined area.

Numbers of extant species for selected taxonomic groups
Number of Estimated number Percent
Kingdom Phylum species described of species described
Protista 100,000 250,000 40.0
Fungi Eumycota 80,000 1,500,000 5.3
Plantae Bryophyta 14,000 30,000 46.7
Tracheophyta 250,000 500,000 50.0
Animalia Nematoda 20,000 1,000,000 2.0
Arthropoda 1,250,000 20,000,000 5.0
Mollusca 100,000 200,000 50.0
Chordata 40,000 50,000 80.0
*With permission, modified from G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll, Principles of Conservation Biology, 1997.

Recent estimates of the total number of species range from 7 to 20 million, of which only about 1.75 million species have been scientifically described. The best-studied groups include plants and vertebrates (phylum Chordata), whereas poorly described groups include fungi, nematodes, and arthropods (see table). Species that live in the ocean and in soils remain poorly known. For most groups of species, there is a gradient of increasing diversity from the Poles to the Equator, and the vast majority of species are concentrated in the tropical and subtropical regions.

Human activities, such as direct harvesting of species, introduction of alien species, habitat destruction, and various forms of habitat degradation (including environmental pollution), have caused dramatic losses of biodiversity; current extinction rates are estimated to be 100–1000 times higher than prehuman extinction rates.

Some measure of biodiversity is responsible for providing essential functions and services that directly improve human life. For example, many medicines, clothing fibers, and industrial products and the vast majority of foods are derived from naturally occurring species. In addition, species are the key working parts of natural ecosystems. They are responsible for maintenance of the gaseous composition of the atmosphere, regulation of the global climate, generation and maintenance of soils, recycling of nutrients and waste products, and biological control of pest species. Ecosystems surely would not function if all species were lost, although it is unclear just how many species are necessary for an ecosystem to function properly.


The tendency in ecosystems, when undisturbed, to have a great variety of species forming a complex web of interactions. Human population pressure and resource consumption tend to reduce biodiversity dangerously; diverse communities are less subject to catastrophic disruption.


The range of living organisms (such as plant and animal species) in an environment during a specific time period.


the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species in their natural environments, which is the aim of conservationists concerned about the indiscriminate destruction of rainforests and other habitats
References in periodicals archive ?
Such customers prefer oils that contain both EPA and DHA and naturally biodiverse products with no genetic modifications.
Coral reefs are some of the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth and home to more than 4,000 species of fish, though they cover less than 1% of the planet's surface.
The eight were whittled down to the final two, and Emily and Tim won the chance of a once-in-a-lifetime trip to Borneo, the most biodiverse jungle in the world.
Our early results show that the more mature and biodiverse sandalwood plantings have around the same diversity and abundance of insects as natural bush.
This is a tragedy not only for some of the world's most biodiverse coral reefs, but also for people in the region, many of whom are extremely impoverished and depend on these reefs for their food and livelihoods,'' said Caleb McClennen, program director of the WCS's marine program.
Summary: A "roll call" of marine species has identified Australian and Japanese waters as the most biodiverse on Earth.
I think there's a couple of species in Australia, but the place where they are most biodiverse is in New Guinea.
A policy paper also insists EU-sold biofuels should not be made from raw materials from tropical forests or recently deforested areas, drained peatland, wetland or highly biodiverse areas.
So is the case with many other biodiverse regions such as Indonesia, parts of Africa and some tropical regions.
To make room for more soybean crops, farmers are clearing deep into the Amazon rainforest--home to one of the most biodiverse animal and plant concentrations, where significant amounts of carbon are stored and where recycled rainfall provides water supplies for Brazil's crops.
The alternative is to create commercial relationships where the relatively small costs of rebuilding a biodiverse landscape are shared throughout the supply chain.
Even as the smoke from coal-fired utility plants heats the environment and raises sea levels, the process of scraping coal from the earth has already destroyed hundreds of thousands of acres of the oldest and most biodiverse forest in North America.

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