biofilm

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Biofilm

An adhesive substance, the glycocalyx, and the bacterial community which it envelops at the interface of a liquid and a surface. When a liquid is in contact with an inert surface, any bacteria within the liquid are attracted to the surface and adhere to it. In this process the bacteria produce the glycocalyx. The bacterial inhabitants within this microenvironment benefit as the biofilm concentrates nutrients from the liquid phase. However, these activities may damage the surface, impair its efficiency, or develop within the biofilm a pathogenic community that may damage the associated environment. Microbial fouling or biofouling are the terms applied to these actual or potentially undesirable consequences.

Microbial fouling affects a large variety of surfaces under various conditions. Microbial biofilms may form wherever bacteria can survive; familiar examples are dental plaque and tooth decay. Dental plaque is an accumulation of bacteria, mainly streptococci, from saliva. The process of tooth decay begins with the bacteria colonizing fissures in and contact points between the teeth. Dietary sucrose is utilized by the bacteria to form extracellular glucans that make up the glycocalyx and assist adhesion to the tooth. Within this microbial biofilm or plaque the metabolic by-products of the bacterial inhabitants are trapped; these include acids that destroy the tooth enamel, dentin, or cementum.

biofilm

[′bī·ō‚film]
(microbiology)
A microbial (bacterial, fungal, algal) community, enveloped by the extracellular biopolymer which these microbial cells produce, that adheres to the interface of a liquid and a surface.
References in periodicals archive ?
The goal of this short course is to provide the participants with the electrochemical techniques used to study extracellular electron transfer in the electrochemically active biofilms that are used in microbial fuel cells and other Bioelectrochemical systems.
Biofilms are surface-attached communities of bacterial or fungal cells that are enmeshed in an extensive extracellular matrix which makes them more resistant to both antibiotics and the immune system, US-based life science instrument supplier ACEA Biosciences said
First is the slow or incomplete penetration of antibiotics in bacterial biofilms and the second is the altered chemical microenvironment within the biofilm which prevents the access of antibiotics to the bacterial cells embedded in the community.
At this years' drinktec, GEA Service will therefore emphasize the GEA SAFEXPERT(tm) antibiofilm program for the beverage and dairy industry, ensuring that biofilm is no longer an issue in securing superior product quality.
Although the microbes build up this armor, they also produce enzymes that break down the sugars in their biofilms in order to move them around and reshape the armor.
9,10) Biofilms formed by bacteria have also been documented on ocular materials such as contact lenses, IOLs, glaucoma tubes, and corneal sutures.
In normal situations, bacteria are as biofilms in most of the times, sessile collections of bacterial cells, attached to abiotic sides.
Study design/Methods: Biofilms of clinical isolates and reference strain of Candida tropicalis were treated with AQs (AQ1 or AQ2) and/or AmB, and the biofilms depletion was studied by crystal violet and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM).
Bacteria can form biofilms on most surfaces including teeth, heart valves and the respiratory tract, Medical Xpress reported.