Biogenic Elements

Biogenic Elements

 

chemical elements constantly present in organisms and having definite biological significance. They include, above all, oxygen (constituting 70 percent of

Table 1. Average content of chemical elements in organisms (mg per 100 g of dry substance; after Bowen, 1966)
  Plants AnimalsBacteria
 aquaticterrestrialaquaticterrestrial 
C34,50045,40040,00046,50054,000
O47,00041,00040,00018,60023,000
N1,5003,0007,50010,0009,600
H4,1005,5005,2007,0007,400
Ca1,0001,800150–2,00020–8,500510
Mg520320500100700
Na3,300120400–4,800400460
K5,2001,400500–3,00074011,500
P350230400–1,8001,700–4,4003,000
S1,200340500–1,900500530
CI470200500–9,000280230
Si150–2,00020–5007–10012–60018
Fe7014401625
Cu11.40.4–50.244.2
Zn15100.6–15016
Cd0.040.060.015–0.3≤0.05
Sr26–1402.62–501.4
F0.450.05–40.215–50
Br741.56–1000.6
I3–1500.0420.1–150.043
Mn5.3630.1–60.023
Co0.070.050.05–0.50.003
Ni0.30.30.04–2.50.08
Cr0.10.0230.02–0.10.0075
Mo0.0450.090.06–0.25<0.02
Se0.080.020.17
V0.20.160.014–0.20.015
B1252–50.05
Al650 (0.05–400)1.50.4–10
Be0.0001<0.010.00003–0.0002
Ba31.40.02–0.30.075
Li0.50.010.1< 0.002
Rb0.74221.7
Cs0.0070.020.0064
Ti1.2–80.10.02–2<0.02
Ga0.050.0060.05< 0.0006
As30.020.0005–0.03≤0.02
Ag0.0250.0060.3–1.10.0006 (?)
Au0.0012< 0.00005–0.00020.00003–0.00080.000023 (?)
Hg0.0030.00150.0046
Zr≤20.0640.01–0.1<0.03
Sn0.1<0.030.02–2< 0.015
Sb0.0060.020.0006
La10.00850.010.00001
W0.00350.0070.00005–0.005(?)
Pb0.840.270.050.2
Bi0.0060.004–0.030.0004
U0.00380.0013
Hf<0.04< 0.0010.004
Table 2. Content of chemical elements In mammals
  Element groups
Content ot elements (percent ot dry substance; order of magnitude)(1) Irreplaceable(2) role not fully ascertained(3) role unknown
101-10-00, C, H, N, Ca  
100-10-1P, K, CI, S, Na  
10-1-10-2Mg  
10-2-10-3Zn, FeSr 
10-3-10-4CuCd, BrLi, Cs
10-3-10-5IFSn
10-4-10-5Mn, VB, SiAl, Ba, Cr
10-4-10-6Mo Rb
10-4-10-7 BeAg
10-5-10-6CoNiGa, Ce, As, Hg,
   Pb, Bi, Ti
10-5-10-7Se Sb, U
10-6-10-7  Th
10-11-10-12J  Ra

the mass of organisms), carbon (18 percent), hydrogen (10 percent), calcium, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, chlorine, sodium, and iron. These elements are part of all living organisms and make up their main mass while performing a major role in the vital processes. Advances in analytical chemistry and spectral analysis have extended the list of biogenic elements. Scientists are continually finding new elements present in small amounts in organisms (trace elements) and discovering the biological role of many of them. V. I. Vernadskii considered that all the chemical elements constantly present in cells and tissues of organisms under natural conditions probably play a specific physiological role. Many elements are highly important only for certain groups of living things (for example, boron is essential for plants, vanadium for ascidians, and so on). The amount of any given elements in organisms depends both on their species characteristics and on the composition of the medium, the diet (particularly, for plants, the concentration and solubility of various soil salts), the ecological characteristics of the organism, and other factors (see Table 1). If some biogenic element is prevented from entering the organism, disease results (biogeochemical endemics—for example, goiter in man if there is a deficiency of iodine in the water and diet or black spot of beets if there is a deficiency of boron). The elements constantly present in mammals can be divided into three groups according to what is known about them and their importance (see Table 2): (1) elements that are part of biologically active compounds (enzymes, hormones, vitamins, or pigments) and are irreplaceable; (2) elements whose physiological and biochemical role has not been fully ascertained; and (3) elements whose role is unknown.

Some other chemical elements are also found in organisms, but their concentration in the tissues and organs and their biological role have not been studied.

V. V. KOVAL’SKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Prior to starting the biofilter, the medium was moistened and biogenic elements were added.
Biogenic elements are consumed by microflora in the charge together with water.
The charge is activated when it is being humidified with water saturated with biogenic elements.
In order to avoid parching, the charge is humidified water saturated with biogenic elements is sprayed over it.
0 and the quantity of biogenic elements in the biofilters.
The same team continued hydrochemical studies to 2001 focusing on major ions, total soluble solids, organic matter, biogenic elements, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and pH, as well as conductivity and transparency of water.
In comparison with the variation of the concentration of gases or biogenic elements, the concentration of mineral substances varied both in the water column and seasonally to a smaller degree.
The content of biogenic elements in Lake Verevi varied in a broad range both in the water column and in different seasons.
Nitrogen is one of the main biogenic elements contained in soil necessary for plant growth.
Soil quality depends not only on the biogenic elements (nitrogen and phosphorus) analysed in this paper and heavy metals concentrations in soil but also on soil acidity.
Microorganisms need humidity to transport biogenic elements (K, N, P), enable metabolism processes and maintain a cell structure.
excessive humidity reinforces washing of pollutants and biogenic elements out of the charge.