Biological Fuel

Biological Fuel

 

(in Russian, biotoplivo), various organic materials which give off heat during the process of decomposition and are used to warm hothouses, hotbeds, and heated soil. Manure (horse, cow, sheep, and hog), domestic garbage, bark (taken from a tree), sawdust, flax tow, waste from the textile industry, dry wood sheets, and undecomposed peat are used as biological fuels. When laid with average density, the volumetric mass (in tons per cu m) is 0.35–0.45 for horse and sheep manure; 0.40–0.50 for cow manure, 0.70–0.75 for domestic garbage, and 0.40–0.45 for bark. In the late autumn biological fuel is put in stacks for storage (separated by types), strongly tamped and heated by culmiferous manure. During storage the temperature in the biological fuel is maintained at from 0° C to 10° C. For two or three weeks before use the biological fuel is broken up (loosened). In order to accelerate initial burning, damp and dense biological fuel is mixed with dry and loose fuel. If the fuel does not begin burning within one week, artificial ignition is resorted to (laying in hotbeds of burning biological fuel or unslaked lime, putting hot stones in, and so on). For one cu m of area in hothouses and heated soil, 0.25–0.4 cu m of biological fuel is required; whereas for one frame in the hotbeds, 0.6–1.5 cu m is required.

V. A. BRYZGALOV

References in periodicals archive ?
To break through these fundamental limitations, Katz has partnered with Patrick Mercier, an electrical engineer at the University of California, San Diego, to improve the electronics of biological fuel cells.
Washington, June 20 (ANI): Researchers at the University of Georgia (UGA), US, have achieved the first step in developing biological fuel cells that could power pacemakers, cochlear implants and prosthetic limbs.
The kinds of biological fuel cells (BFCs), also known as biofuel cells, which is covered in the report are the following two types:
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These devices have been variously referred to as biochemical fuel cells, biological fuel cells, and biofuel cells.
We have developed a biological fuel cell which uses microbial electricity generation enabled by microfluidic flow control to produce power," said Gregory, an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at Carnegie Mellon.
Other tracks will cover biological fuel cells, personal care and cosmetics, the nanotechnology-biotechnology interface, and marine biotechnology.
The meeting will also feature three days of breakout sessions touching on such topics as Transforming the Ethanol Industry; Cell Factories and the Pathway to Bioderived Chemicals; Marine Biotechnology: Promising Drugs from the Sea; Exploring the Biotech-Nanotech Interface; Biological fuel Cells, and Industrial Biotechnology for Food and Feed.
These efforts could one day lead to cleaner energy alternatives through the creation of biological fuel cells.
In the last decade, research on biological fuel cells has gained momentum--and has included a menagerie of living power sources, including grapes, lobsters, clams and snails.
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