Biotic Environmental Factors

Biotic Environmental Factors

 

the aggregate of influences exerted on organisms by the life processes of other organisms.

These influences are extremely varied. Living things may be a source of food for other organisms, serve as a habitat (as host for parasites), aid reproduction (the activity of pollinating animals), or have chemical (toxins, bacteria), mechanical, and other effects. Unlike abiotic environmental factors, the action of biotic factors is manifested by the interaction of different species of organisms with others. For example, plants release oxygen which is needed for the respiration of animals, while animals ensure the entry of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere; carbon dioxide is used by plants in the process of photosynthesis. The activity of predators affects the dynamics of the abundance of their prey, and this affects, in turn, the size of predatory populations. The effect of biotic factors can be both direct and indirect, being reflected in the change in conditions of the surrounding inanimate environment (change in bacterial composition of the soil or change in the microclimate in a forest).

REFERENCES

Naumov, N. P. Ekologiia zhivotnykh. Moscow, 1955.
Makfed’en, E. Ekologiia zhivotnykh: tseli i metody. Moscow, 1965. (Translated from English.)

N. A. SHILOV

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