bipolar disorder

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Related to Bipolar II Disorder: hypomania, cyclothymia, Bipolar I Disorder

bipolar disorder,

formerly

manic-depressive disorder

or

manic-depression,

severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. The term "manic-depression" was introduced by the German psychiatrist Emil KraepelinKraepelin, Emil
, 1856–1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ.
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 in 1896. The manic phase of the disorder is characterized by an abnormally elevated or irritable mood, grandiosity, sleeplessness, extravagance, and a tendency toward irrational judgment. During the depressed phase, the person tends to appear lethargic and withdrawn, shows a lack of concentration, and expresses feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, and guilt. This dual character of the disorder has given it the name bipolar disorder, in contrast to the unipolar depression symptomatic of the majority of mood disorders. The symptoms range in intensity and pattern and may not be recognized at first. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may have long periods in their lives without episodes of mania or depression, but manic-depressives have the highest suicide rate of any group with a psychological disorder.

Incidence

Estimates suggest that about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorders. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and continue throughout life. The disorder occurs in males and females equally and is found more frequently in close relatives of people already known to have it.. It has had notable incidence among creative individuals, affecting such artists as Hector Berlioz, Gustav Mahler, Ernest Hemingway, and Virginia Woolf.

Treatment

Therapy includes lithiumlithium
[Gr.,=stone], metallic chemical element; symbol Li; at. no. 3; interval in which at. wt. ranges 6.938–6.997; m.p. about 180.54°C;; b.p. about 1,342°C;; sp. gr. .534 at 20°C;; valence +1. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal.
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 (to control mania and stabilize mood swings), anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine, and antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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. Electroconvulsive therapyelectroconvulsive therapy
in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish
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 has been useful in cases where other treatments have had little success. Psychotherapy can provide support to the patient and the family.

Bibliography

See F. K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, Manic-Depressive Illness (1990); D. Healy, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (2011); publications of the National Institute of Mental Health.

bipolar disorder

[bī′pō·lər dis′ȯrd·ər]
(psychology)
A major affective disorder in which there are episodes of both mania and depression. Also known as manic-depressive illness.
References in periodicals archive ?
The less intense elevated moods in bipolar II disorder are called hypomania.
Catherine's publicist, Cece Yorke, said: "After dealing with the stress of the past year, Catherine made the decision to check into a mental health facility for a brief stay to treat her Bipolar II disorder.
Last week, Zeta Jones's publicist confirmed that the 41-year-old Oscar winner had received mental health treatment, saying: "After dealing with the stress of the past year, Catherine made the decision to check into a mental health facility for a brief stay to treat her bipolar II disorder.
A relationship between bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder?
Briefly, the characteristics of bipolar II disorder are major depressive episodes accompanied by at least one hypomanic episode.
Results: Exponential decay regressions showed that greater seafood consumption predicted lower lifetime prevalence rates of bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder and bipolar spectrum disorder.
Forty-eight percent of people with bipolar II disorder had a substance use disorder, 39.
Ms Jones was reported in 2011 to have completed a treatment programme for her bipolar II disorder.
Zeta-Jones revealed in 2011 - the year she received a CBE - she was struggling with bipolar II disorder, a depression condition.
In cases of affective disorders with rapid mood swings, the concept of bipolar spectrum disorders has also been put forward as an inclusive diagnostic choice (5), which expands particularly with regard to the clinical variants of the bipolar II disorder Clinicians and researchers specializing in the subject emphasize the importance of the underlying temperaments as the dispositional dimension and argue that it will be adequate to explain the complicated clinical scenario by cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments superimposed by major depression episodes, anxiety-sensitive conditions, dysregulated impulse control and attention, and alcohol and substance abuse and/or bulimic episodes.
APRIL 2011: Zeta-Jones seeks treatment for bipolar II disorder, checking herself into Silver Hill Hospital in Connecticut.