bipolar disorder

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Related to Bipolar affective disorder: borderline personality disorder

bipolar disorder,

formerly

manic-depressive disorder

or

manic-depression,

severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. The term "manic-depression" was introduced by the German psychiatrist Emil KraepelinKraepelin, Emil
, 1856–1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ.
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 in 1896. The manic phase of the disorder is characterized by an abnormally elevated or irritable mood, grandiosity, sleeplessness, extravagance, and a tendency toward irrational judgment. During the depressed phase, the person tends to appear lethargic and withdrawn, shows a lack of concentration, and expresses feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, and guilt. This dual character of the disorder has given it the name bipolar disorder, in contrast to the unipolar depression symptomatic of the majority of mood disorders. The symptoms range in intensity and pattern and may not be recognized at first. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may have long periods in their lives without episodes of mania or depression, but manic-depressives have the highest suicide rate of any group with a psychological disorder.

Incidence

Estimates suggest that about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorders. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and continue throughout life. The disorder occurs in males and females equally and is found more frequently in close relatives of people already known to have it.. It has had notable incidence among creative individuals, affecting such artists as Hector Berlioz, Gustav Mahler, Ernest Hemingway, and Virginia Woolf.

Treatment

Therapy includes lithiumlithium
[Gr.,=stone], metallic chemical element; symbol Li; at. no. 3; interval in which at. wt. ranges 6.938–6.997; m.p. about 180.54°C;; b.p. about 1,342°C;; sp. gr. .534 at 20°C;; valence +1. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal.
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 (to control mania and stabilize mood swings), anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine, and antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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. Electroconvulsive therapyelectroconvulsive therapy
in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish
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 has been useful in cases where other treatments have had little success. Psychotherapy can provide support to the patient and the family.

Bibliography

See F. K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, Manic-Depressive Illness (1990); D. Healy, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (2011); publications of the National Institute of Mental Health.

bipolar disorder

[bī′pō·lər dis′ȯrd·ər]
(psychology)
A major affective disorder in which there are episodes of both mania and depression. Also known as manic-depressive illness.
References in periodicals archive ?
Modern psychopharmacological options are safer and better tolerated, but no single drug has been shown to successfully treat all manifestations of depressive symptoms in bipolar affective disorder.
Loci on chromosomes 6q and 6p interact to increase susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder in the national institute of mental health genetics initiative pedigrees.
1984, Preventing medical noncompliance in the outpatient treatment of bipolar affective disorders, Journal of Consultation and Clinical Psychology, 52, 873-878.
His past medical history included bipolar affective disorder since age 7, and he had been on lithium 300 mg b.
A substantial body of evidence that shows that lamotrigine, in addition to being safe and effective in the treatment of epilepsy, is useful in treating resistant depression, rapid cycling bipolar effective disorder, depressive episodes in bipolar affective disorder and in the maintenance phase or prophylaxis of bipolar disorder is summarized.
Comorbid conditions accompanying Tourette syndrome include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar affective disorder, anxiety, pervasive developmental disorder, substance abuse, disruptive behavior, personality disorders, and family problems.
Chandler, J, (2002) Bipolar affective disorder (manic depressive disorder) in children and adolescents.
It includes autism, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression, sleep disorders, addiction and substance abuse, bipolar affective disorder, panic and anxiety disorders, mental retardation, and epilepsy.
These results suggest a molecular basis for both bipolar affective disorder and its treatment," they conclude.
With respect to SSRIs and psychotic breaks, these do happen, and are due to the drugs' being inappropriately prescribed for people in the depressive phase of bipolar affective disorder, a.
Novel alternatives and supplements to lithium and anticonvulsants for bipolar affective disorder.
Mohd Noor claims in his lawsuit that he suffered from Bipolar Affective Disorder Manic Phase for which he sought treatment.