bipolar disorder

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bipolar disorder,

formerly

manic-depressive disorder

or

manic-depression,

severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. The term "manic-depression" was introduced by the German psychiatrist Emil KraepelinKraepelin, Emil
, 1856–1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ.
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 in 1896. The manic phase of the disorder is characterized by an abnormally elevated or irritable mood, grandiosity, sleeplessness, extravagance, and a tendency toward irrational judgment. During the depressed phase, the person tends to appear lethargic and withdrawn, shows a lack of concentration, and expresses feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, and guilt. This dual character of the disorder has given it the name bipolar disorder, in contrast to the unipolar depression symptomatic of the majority of mood disorders. The symptoms range in intensity and pattern and may not be recognized at first. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may have long periods in their lives without episodes of mania or depression, but manic-depressives have the highest suicide rate of any group with a psychological disorder.

Incidence

Estimates suggest that about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorders. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and continue throughout life. The disorder occurs in males and females equally and is found more frequently in close relatives of people already known to have it.. It has had notable incidence among creative individuals, affecting such artists as Hector Berlioz, Gustav Mahler, Ernest Hemingway, and Virginia Woolf.

Treatment

Therapy includes lithiumlithium
[Gr.,=stone], metallic chemical element; symbol Li; at. no. 3; interval in which at. wt. ranges 6.938–6.997; m.p. about 180.54°C;; b.p. about 1,342°C;; sp. gr. .534 at 20°C;; valence +1. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal.
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 (to control mania and stabilize mood swings), anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine, and antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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. Electroconvulsive therapyelectroconvulsive therapy
in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish
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 has been useful in cases where other treatments have had little success. Psychotherapy can provide support to the patient and the family.

Bibliography

See F. K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, Manic-Depressive Illness (1990); D. Healy, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (2011); publications of the National Institute of Mental Health.

bipolar disorder

[bī′pō·lər dis′ȯrd·ər]
(psychology)
A major affective disorder in which there are episodes of both mania and depression. Also known as manic-depressive illness.
References in periodicals archive ?
A double-blind, randomized comparison of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular injections of olanzapine, lorazepam, or placebo in treating acutely agitated patients diagnosed with bipolar mania.
By successfully meeting the primary endpoint in each of these studies, we now have 3 positive schizophrenia trials and 3 positive bipolar mania trials," said Dr.
Geodon for the treatment of acute bipolar mania including manic and mixed
Does the committee conclude that ADASUVE (loxapine) inhalation powder should be approved for use as a single dose in 24 hours when used with the FDA recommended REMS, for the treatment for agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar mania.
Is bipolar depression or bipolar mania the most commonly investigated bipolar disorder indication in clinical trials?
We now have data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials in more than 3,500 children and adolescents with psychosis, bipolar mania, autism, and aggression.
A placebo-controlled, double-blind study of the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in patients with acute bipolar mania.
Risperidone is approved to treat schizophrenia and bipolar mania associated with bipolar disorder.
Cariprazine is currently undergoing Phase III trials for the separate and additional indications of schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
People with bipolar disorder experience extreme mood swings ranging from highs, called bipolar mania, to lows, called bipolar depression(4).
The statements reflect comments made at a meeting of the agency's Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee in June, when the panel reviewed short-term data on olanzapine for these two indications, on quetiapine (Seroquel) for treating schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and bipolar mania in children and adolescents aged 10-17, and on ziprasidone (Geodon) for manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17.
Special Considerations: Common adverse events in bipolar mania trials included somnolence and extrapyramidal symptoms, dizziness, and akathisia.