Eglash cites the example of the random music of the Birom, a form of musical instrument indigenous to Nigeria that has something of a white noise distribution of sounds, as follows:
The onomatopoeia of Birom, mimicking Eglash's use of the Rossler attractor as feedback (1999:169), can be represented in the following fractal mathematical expression:
Thus, even though "eyebrows were raised," Sharwood-Smith arranged for the Sultan of Sokoto to drop by the home of Rwang Pam, the chief of the Birom, one of the ethnic groups most active in the Middle Belt Movement.
Sklar traces the origins of the Middle Belt Movement back to the formation of the Birom Progressive Union (BPU) in 1945 by Patrick Dokotri, "a former Catholic seminary student.
Dudley pointed out that by the late 1940s most ethnic groups in Northern Nigeria had seen the establishment of ethnic improvement associations or "progressive unions," such as the one mentioned for the Birom.
These include the Tiv Progressive Union (TPU); Middle Zone League (MZL); Middle-Belt People's Party (MBPP); United Middle-Belt Congress (UMBC); Northern Nigeria Non-Muslim League; Birom progressive Union (BPU), with a strong backing from the Christian missionaries, especially SIM and SUM (Dudley, 1968, pp.
The MZL was merged with the Birom Progressive Union in 1955 to form the UMBC as they had a common political interest (Dudley, 1968, pp.