Bishops' Wars

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Bishops' Wars,

two brief campaigns (1639 and 1640) of the Scots against Charles I of England. When Charles attempted to strengthen episcopacy in Scotland by imposing (1637) the English Book of Common Prayer, the Scots countered by pledging themselves in the National Covenant (1638) to restore Presbyterianism. A general assembly of the Scottish church abolished episcopacy. The first war was ended without fighting by the Pacification of Berwick, in which Charles conceded the Scottish right to a free church assembly and a free parliament. However, the assembly that met promptly reaffirmed the covenant. In spite of the refusal of his Short Parliament to vote him money, Charles managed to raise another army, but it was unable to stop the Scots from invading England and occupying Northumberland and Durham. Charles made peace at Ripon (Oct., 1640), and his promise there to pay an indemnity to the Scots necessitated his calling the Long Parliament. See English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: IN A CHICAGO PARK on May 1, 1983, a demonstrator weighs in on the wording of the bishops' war and peace pastoral.
The were recreating The Battle of Newburn Ford, part of the Second Bishops' War, which saw an army of 20,000 Scottish troops occupy Newcastle.
The Battle of Newburn Ford was part of the Second Bishops' War and was sparked when King Charles tried to force a new book of prayer on the Scottish people.
BATTLEFIELD Members of the Sealed Knot Society reenact the battle for Newburn, part of the Second Bishops' War
Retrace the action of August 1640 when the Scottish Army invaded Northumberland during what was known as the Second Bishops' War.
Although the main focus was on the centres of economic and political power, the communities of the North-east played a significant part in the conflict, particularly during the Bishops' Wars that preceded the English Civil Wars.
Part one argues that the English had a well-established and, by then, inflamed fear of Catholic invasion, and that their economy was already in distress as a result of European conflicts and the Bishops' Wars.
The war that we parochially tend to call English actually began north of the border in what were called the Bishops' Wars, fought over the form of state religion.