Blackfoot

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Blackfoot,

Native North Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They occupied in the early 19th cent. a large range of territory around the Upper Missouri (above the Yellowstone) and North Saskatchewan rivers W to the Rockies. Their name derives from the fact that they dyed their moccasins black. There were three main tribes—the Siksika, or Blackfoot proper; the Piegan; and the Kainah, or Blood. Although they did not form a unified political entity, they were united in defending their lands and in warfare. The Atsina (related to the Arapaho) and the Athapascan-speaking Sarsi were allied with the Blackfoot group. The Blackfoot were unremittingly hostile toward neighboring tribes and usually toward white men; intrusions upon Blackfoot lands were efficiently repelled. Prior to the mid-18th cent. they had moved into the N Great Plains area, acquired horses from southern tribes, and developed a nomadic Plains culture, largely dependent on the buffalo. Their only cultivated crop was tobacco, grown for ceremonial purposes. With the early coming of the white man, the Blackfoot gained wealth from the sale of beaver pelts, but the killing off of the buffalo and the near exhaustion of fur stocks brought them to near starvation. Presently the Blackfoot are mainly ranchers and farmers living on reservations in Montana and Alberta. They continue to a small degree the rich ceremonialism that earlier marked their religion; important rituals include the sun dance and the vision quest. In 1990 there were 38,000 Blackfoot in the United States and over 11,000 in Canada.

Bibliography

See J. C. Ewers, The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains (1958, repr. 1967); H. A. Dempsey, Crowfoot, Chief of the Blackfeet (1972); M. McFee, Modern Blackfeet (1972); B. Nettl, Blackfoot Musical Thought (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
Molly Matthews, |10, at the grave of her cat Black Foot, right, who was run over
The excessive level of arsenic can cause various types of skin diseases, diabetes, kidney diseases, hypertension, heart diseases, birth defects, black foot diseases, and multiple types of cancers etc.
Statement further said that this chemical has hazardous impact on health, as it can cause cancer, Diabetes, kidney diseases, hypertension, heart diseases birth defects, black foot diseases etc.
Mother-of-three Mrs Nicholls, 46, from Reading, was told she would have to pay for a black foot, but health chiefs backed down after the Mirror highlighted her case.
The excessive level of arsenic causes various types of skin diseases' diabetes' hypertension' heart' kidney' black foot diseases' birth defects and multiple types of cancer.
Out of those 14 unsafe brands 10 brands (Premier Pure Water, Nation, Naimat, Natural Aqua, Kallan Water, Active, Al-Shifa, Lock, Aqua National, Kalash Pure Water) have high level of Arsenic ranging from 14 ppb to 380 ppb (permissible limit is 10 ppb) which has hazardous impact on health, as it can cause cancer (of lungs, bladder, skin, prostrate, kidney, nose and liver), diabetes, kidney diseases, hypertension, heart diseases, birth defects, black foot diseases etc.