Blackfoot


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Blackfoot,

Native North Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They occupied in the early 19th cent. a large range of territory around the Upper Missouri (above the Yellowstone) and North Saskatchewan rivers W to the Rockies. Their name derives from the fact that they dyed their moccasins black. There were three main tribes—the Siksika, or Blackfoot proper; the Piegan; and the Kainah, or Blood. Although they did not form a unified political entity, they were united in defending their lands and in warfare. The Atsina (related to the Arapaho) and the Athapascan-speaking Sarsi were allied with the Blackfoot group. The Blackfoot were unremittingly hostile toward neighboring tribes and usually toward white men; intrusions upon Blackfoot lands were efficiently repelled. Prior to the mid-18th cent. they had moved into the N Great Plains area, acquired horses from southern tribes, and developed a nomadic Plains culture, largely dependent on the buffalo. Their only cultivated crop was tobacco, grown for ceremonial purposes. With the early coming of the white man, the Blackfoot gained wealth from the sale of beaver pelts, but the killing off of the buffalo and the near exhaustion of fur stocks brought them to near starvation. Presently the Blackfoot are mainly ranchers and farmers living on reservations in Montana and Alberta. They continue to a small degree the rich ceremonialism that earlier marked their religion; important rituals include the sun dance and the vision quest. In 1990 there were 38,000 Blackfoot in the United States and over 11,000 in Canada.

Bibliography

See J. C. Ewers, The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains (1958, repr. 1967); H. A. Dempsey, Crowfoot, Chief of the Blackfeet (1972); M. McFee, Modern Blackfeet (1972); B. Nettl, Blackfoot Musical Thought (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
Some Blackfoot chiefs were wary of signing such an agreement, but Crowfoot trusted the Mounted Police and the Queen's representatives, and in September 1877, after much deliberation, the Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan and Sarcee bands signed Treary 7.
One of the highlights of the week was getting out in the beautiful Blackfoot Valley of west-central Montana to see Partners projects that encompass wetland and stream restoration, grazing systems, fish screens, removal of fish passage barriers, off-site water development, noxious weed management, and methods to reduce predation on livestock.
Iinisskimm were reportedly part of the original Beaver bundle, associated with rivers and reputedly the oldest Blackfoot ceremonial bundle.
Multiple risk factors and related malignant neoplasms of blackfoot disease.
The Big Blackfoot Chapter developed a two-pronged strategy for dealing with the fishery decline: 1) protecting the vulnerable native trout from anglers with catch-and-release fishing regulations throughout the drainage, and 2) working with private landowners to restore the Blackfoot's degraded tributary streams.
He worked with horses over the years, and he knows enough to shoe Blackfoot himself and take care of the horse's health.
the mighty Blackfoot has been broken by the resource-guzzling activities of humans and is no longer the proud water that Maclean described.
The Sun Dance camp situated some seven miles south of Gleichen, on the Blackfoot Reserve, was as scene of vivid activity and colorful display Tuesday.
Commonly seen on Blackfoot shirts, for example, are stylized 'tadpole' designs, painted to the body of the shirt in natural pigments.
Under Charlie Lister's tutelage, Swift Blackfoot has come a long way since competing in Kinsley handicaps early in her career, and took some notable scalps in the pounds 2,500 feature, not least that of Flying Winner.
However, thanks in large part to Blackfoot Telecommunications Group (Missoula, Mont.